Camp Chase Gazette

Kansas

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Battle of Baxter Springs  

Other Names: Baxter Springs Massacre

Location: Cherokee County

Date(s): October 6, 1863

Commanders: Lt. James B. Pond and Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt [US]; Lt. Col. William C. Quantrill [CS]

Forces Engaged: Detachments from three regiments and an escort [US]; Quantrills Raiders (approx. 400) [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 106 total (US 103; CS 3)

Description: After conducting many raids in Kansas, including the massacre at Lawrence, Quantrill decided to winter in Texas. Along with other partisans, he headed south on the Texas Road and captured and killed two Union teamsters who had come from a post called Baxter Springs. Quantrill decided to attack the post and divided his force into two columns, one under him and the other commanded by a subordinate, David Poole. Poole and his men proceeded down the Texas Road, where they encountered Union soldiers, most of whom were African Americans. They chased and attacked the Union troops, killing some of them before they reached the earth and log fort. After the Union survivors reached the fort, the Rebels attacked, but the garrison, with the help of a howitzer, fought them off. Quantrills column moved on the post from another direction and chanced on a Union detachment escorting Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt and wagons transporting his personal items from his former headquarters of the Department of the Frontier at Fort Scott to his new one at Fort Smith. Most of this detachment, including the band and Maj. Henry Z. Curtis (son of Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis), was murdered, but Blunt and a few mounted men returned to Fort Scott. Blunt was removed from command for failing to protect his column, but he was soon restored. Touted as a massacre by some, Baxter Springs was another of the events that characterized the vicious Kansas-Missouri border warfare.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Lawrence  

Other Names: Lawrence Massacre

Location: Douglas County

Date(s): August 21, 1863

Commanders: No Union commander [US]; Lt. Col. William C. Quantrill [CS]

Forces Engaged: No Union troops [US]; Quantrills Raiders and other guerrillas [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 204 total (US 164; CS 40)

Description: In a supposed retaliation for a Union raid on Osceola, Missouri, Lt. Col. William C. Quantrill led a force of about 300 to 400 partisans in an attack on the city of Lawrence, Kansas. His men killed civiliansmen and boysand destroyed many of the buildings. He held the town several hours and then withdrew. The Lawrence Massacre was, perhaps, the extreme example of the vicious Kansas-Missouri border warfare.

Result(s): Confederate victory

 Battle of Marais des Cygnes   

Other Names: Battle of Osage, Battle of Trading Post

Location: Linn County

Date(s): October 25, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Maj. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Maj. Gen. James F. Fagan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Provisional cavalry division [US]; cavalry division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description:  Maj. Gen. Sterling Price led an expedition into Missouri which Union forces under Maj. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis and Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton finally countered around Kansas City, Missouri. Price withdrew south, and Pleasonton, commanding in the field, pursued him into Kansas and fought him at Marais des Cygnes. After an artillery bombardment that began at 4:00 am, Pleasontons men attacked furiously. Although outnumbered, they hit the Rebel line, forcing them to withdraw.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Mine Creek   

Other Names: Battle of the Osage

Location: Linn County

Date(s): October 25, 1864

Commanders: Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Maj. Gen. James F. Fagan [CS]

Forces Engaged: Provisional cavalry division [US]; cavalry division [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 1,300 total (US 100; CS 1,200)

Description: About six miles south of Trading Post, where the Marais de Cygnes engagement had occurred, the brigades of Col. Frederick W. Benteen and Col. John F. Phillips, of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasontons Provisional Cavalry Division, overtook the Confederates as they were crossing Mine Creek. These Rebels, stalled by their wagons crossing the ford, had formed a line on the north side of Mine Creek. The Federals, although outnumbered, commenced the attack as additional troops from Pleasontons command arrived during the fight. They soon surrounded the Rebels, resulting in the capture of about 600 men and two generals, Brig. Gen. John S. Marmaduke and Brig. Gen. William L. Cabell. Having lost this many men, Prices army was doomed. Retreat to friendly territory was the only recourse.

Result(s): Union victory