Camp Chase Gazette

Follow Us On:

Virginia

            Share on Tumblr
Battle of Aldie    

Other Names: None

Location: Loudoun County

Date(s): June 17, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick [US]; Col. Thomas Munford [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 250 total

Description:Stuart’s cavalry screened the Confederate infantry as it marched north behind the sheltering Blue Ridge. The pursuing Federals of Kilpatrick’s brigade, in the advance of Gregg’s division, encountered Munford’s troopers near the village of Aldie, resulting in four hours of stubborn fighting. Both sides made mounted assaults by regiments and squadrons. Kilpatrick was reinforced in the afternoon, and Munford withdrew toward Middleburg.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Amelia Springs   

Other Names: None

Location: Amelia Springs

Date(s): April 5, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George Crook [US]; Maj. Gen. Rosser and Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 250 total

Description: On April 5, Confederate cavalry under Fitzhugh Lee and Rosser assaulted Union cavalry under George Crook as they returned from burning Confederate wagons at Painesville. This running fight started north of Amelia Springs and pushed through and beyond Jetersville.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Appomattox Court House  

Other Names: None

Location: Appomattox County

Date(s): April 9, 1865

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 700 total (27,805 Confederate soldiers paroled)

Description: Early on April 9, the remnants of John Broun Gordon’s corps and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry formed line of battle at Appomattox Court House. Gen. Robert E. Lee determined to make one last attempt to escape the closing Union pincers and reach his supplies at Lynchburg. At dawn the Confederates advanced, initially gaining ground against Sheridan’s cavalry. The arrival of Union infantry, however, stopped the advance in its tracks. Lee’s army was now surrounded on three sides. Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9. This was the final engagement of the war in Virginia.

Result(s): Union victory

 Appomattox Station   

Other Names: None

Location: Appomattox County

Campaign: Appomattox Campaign (March-April 1865)

Date(s): April 8, 1865

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. George A. Custer [US]; Brig. Gen. Lindsay Walker [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Custer’s division captured a supply train and twenty-five guns, driving off and scattering the Confederate defenders.  This unique action pitted artillery without infantry support against cavalry. Custer captured and burned three trains loaded with provisions for Lee’s army.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Appomattox Station   

Other Names: None

Location: Appomattox County

Date(s): April 8, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George A. Custer [US]; Brig. Gen. Lindsay Walker [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: Custer’s division captured a supply train and twenty-five guns, driving off and scattering the Confederate defenders.  This unique action pitted artillery without infantry support against cavalry. Custer captured and burned three trains loaded with provisions for Lee’s army.

Result(s): Union victory

 Battle of Aquia Creek  

Other Names: None

Location: Stafford County

Date(s): May 29-June 1, 1861

Commanders: Cdr. James H. Ward [US]; Col. Daniel Ruggles [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3 gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 10 total

Description: Three Union naval vessels bombarded Confederate batteries near the mouth of Aquia Creek that were built to protect the northern terminus of the railroad to Richmond. Confederates feared a landing of troops, but this did not materialize. Results of the bombardment were inconclusive, although the batteries were later withdrawn.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Auburn #1  

Other Names: Catlett’s Station, St. Stephen’s Church

Location: Fauquier County

Date(s): October 13, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. William. H. French [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 50 total

Description: After the retreat from Gettysburg, the Confederate army concentrated behind Rapidan River in Orange County. The Federals advanced to Rappahannock River in August, and in mid- September they pushed strong columns forward to confront Lee along the Rapidan. Early September, Lee dispatched two divisions of Longstreet’s Corps to reinforce the Confederate army in Georgia; the Federals followed suite, sending the XI and XII Corps to Tennessee by railroad in late September after the Battle of Chickamauga (September 18-20). Early October, Lee began an offensive sweep around Meade’s right flank with his remaining two corps, forcing the Federals to withdraw along the line of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. On October 13, Stuart, with Fitzhugh Lee and Lomax’s brigades, skirmished with the rearguard of the Union III Corps near Auburn. Finding himself cut off by retreating Federal columns, Stuart secreted his troopers in a wooded ravine until the unsuspecting Federals moved on.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Auburn #2   

Other Names: Catlett’s Station, St. Stephen’s Church

Location: Fauquier County

Date(s): October 13, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. William. H. French [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 50 total

Description: After the retreat from Gettysburg, the Confederate army concentrated behind Rapidan River in Orange County. The Federals advanced to Rappahannock River in August, and in mid- September they pushed strong columns forward to confront Lee along the Rapidan. Early September, Lee dispatched two divisions of Longstreet’s Corps to reinforce the Confederate army in Georgia; the Federals followed suite, sending the XI and XII Corps to Tennessee by railroad in late September after the Battle of Chickamauga (September 18-20). Early October, Lee began an offensive sweep around Meade’s right flank with his remaining two corps, forcing the Federals to withdraw along the line of the Orange & Alexandria Railroad. On October 13, Stuart, with Fitzhugh Lee and Lomax’s brigades, skirmished with the rearguard of the Union III Corps near Auburn. Finding himself cut off by retreating Federal columns, Stuart secreted his troopers in a wooded ravine until the unsuspecting Federals moved on.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Ball’s Bluff  

Other Names: Harrison’s Landing, Leesburg

Location: Loudoun County

Date(s): October 21, 1861

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone and Col. Edward Baker [US]; Brig. Gen. Nathan G. Evans [CS]

Forces Engaged: 3,600 total (US 2,000; CS 1,600)

Estimated Casualties: 1,070 total (US 921; CS 149)

Description: Confederate Brig. Gen. Nathan “Shanks” Evans stopped a badly coordinated attempt by Union forces under Brig. Gen. Charles P. Stone to cross the Potomac at Harrison’s Island and capture Leesburg. A timely Confederate counterattack drove the Federals over the bluff and into the river. More than 700 Federals were captured. Col. Edward D. Baker (a U.S. Senator) was killed. This Union rout had severe political ramifications in Washington and led to the establishment of the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War.

Result(s): Confederate victory

 Battle of Beaver Dam Creek   

Other Names: Mechanicsville, Ellerson’s Mill

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): June 26, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 31,987 total (US 15,631; CS 16,356)

Estimated Casualties: 1,700 total (US 400; CS 1,300)

Description: Second of the Seven Days’ Battles. Gen. Robert E. Lee initiated his offensive against McClellan’s right flank north of the Chickahominy River. A.P. Hill threw his division, reinforced by one of D.H. Hill’s brigades, into a series of futile assaults against Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter’s V Corps, which was drawn up behind Beaver Dam Creek. Confederate attacks were driven back with heavy casualties. Jackson’s Shenandoah Valley divisions, however, were approaching from the northwest, forcing Porter to withdraw the next morning to a position behind Boatswain Creek just beyond Gaines’ Mill.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Berryville   

Other Names: None

Location: Clarke County

Date(s): September 3-4, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 500 total

Description: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s divisions marched south from Halltown, reaching Berryville on September 3. Happening upon elements of Brig. Gen. George Crook’s corps going into camp, Maj. Gen. R.H. Anderson’s (Kershaw’s) division attacked with limited results. During the night, Early brought up his entire army but by daylight found Sheridan’s position too strongly entrenched to assault. General Early withdrew after dark behind Opequon Creek.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Big Bethel   

Other Names: Bethel Church, Great Bethel

Location: York County and Hampton

Date(s): June 10, 1861

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Pierce [US]; Col. John B. Magruder and Col. D.H. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4,700 total (US 3,500; CS 1,200)

Estimated Casualties: 87 total (US 79; CS 8)

Description: This was the first land battle in Virginia. Maj. Gen. Benjamin F. Butler sent converging columns from Hampton and Newport News against advanced Confederate outposts at Little and Big Bethel. Confederates abandoned Little Bethel and fell back to their entrenchments behind Brick Kiln Creek, near Big Bethel Church.  The Federals, under immediate command of Brig. Gen. Ebenezer Pierce, pursued, attacked frontally along the road, and were repulsed. Crossing downstream, the 5th New York Zouaves attempted to turn the Confederate left flank, but were repulsed.  Unit commander Col. T. Wynthrop was killed. The Union forces were disorganized and retired, returning to Hampton and Newport News. The Confederates suffered 1 killed, 7 wounded.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Blackburn’s Ford  

Other Names: Bull Run

Location: Prince William County and Fairfax County

Date(s): July 18, 1861

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 151 total (US 83; CS 68)

Description: On 16 July, 1862, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, 35,000 strong, marched out of the Washington defenses to give battle to the Confederate army, which was concentrated around the vital railroad junction at Manassas. The Confederate army, about 22,000 men, under the command of Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, guarded the fords of Bull Run. On July 18, McDowell reached Centreville and pushed southwest, attempting to cross at Blackburn’s Ford. He was repulsed. This action was a reconnaissance-in-force prior to the main event at Manassas/Bull Run. Because of this action, Union commander McDowell decided on the flanking maneuver he employed at First Manassas.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Boydton Plank Road  

Other Names: Hatcher’s Run, Burgess’ Mill

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): October 27-28, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock [US]; Maj. Gen. Henry Heth [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps  (35,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 3,058 total (1,758 US; 1,300 CS)

Description: Directed by Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, divisions from three Union corps (II, V, and IX) and Gregg’s cavalry division, numbering more than 30,000 men, withdrew from the Petersburg lines and marched west to operate against the Boydton Plank Road and South Side Railroad. The initial Union advance on October 27 gained the Boydton Plank Road, a major campaign objective. But that afternoon, a counterattack near Burgess’ Mill spearheaded by Maj. Gen. Henry Heth’s division and Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton’s cavalry isolated the II Corps and forced a retreat. The Confederates retained control of the Boydton Plank Road for the rest of the winter.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Brandy Station   

Other Names: Fleetwood Hill

Location: Culpeper County

Date(s): June 9, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Pleasonton [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps (22,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 1,090 total

Description: At dawn June 9, the Union cavalry corps under Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton launched a surprise attack on Stuart’s cavalry at Brandy Station. After an all-day fight in which fortunes changed repeatedly, the Federals retired without discovering Lee’s infantry camped near Culpeper. This battle marked the apogee of the Confederate cavalry in the East. From this point in the war, the Federal cavalry gained strength and confidence. Brandy Station was the largest cavalry battle of the war and the opening engagement of the Gettysburg Campaign.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Bristoe Station  

Other Names: None

Location: Prince William County

Date(s): October 14, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,980 total

Description: On October 14, 1863, A.P. Hill’s corps stumbled upon two corps of the retreating Union army at Bristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. Union soldiers of the II Corps, posted behind the Orange & Alexandria Railroad embankment, mauled two brigades of Henry Heth’s division and captured a battery of artillery. Hill reinforced his line but could make little headway against the determined defenders. After this victory, the Federals continued their withdrawal to Centreville unmolested. Lee’s Bristoe offensive sputtered to a premature halt. After minor skirmishing near Manassas and Centreville, the Confederates retired slowly to Rappahannock River destroying the Orange & Alexandria Railroad as they went.  At Bristoe Station, Hill lost standing in the eyes of Lee, who angrily ordered him to bury his dead and say no more about it.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Buckland Mills  

Other Names: Buckland Races, Chestnut Hill

Location: Fauquier County

Date(s): October 19, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. J. Kilpatrick [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 230 total

Description: After defeat at Bristoe Station and an aborted advance on Centreville, Stuart’s cavalry shielded the withdrawal of Lee’s army from the vicinity of Manassas Junction. Union cavalry under Kilpatrick pursued Stuart’s cavalry along the Warrenton Turnpike but were lured into an ambush near Chestnut Hill and routed.  The Federal troopers were scattered and chased five miles in an affair that came to be known as the “Buckland Races.”

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Cedar Creek  

Other Names: Belle Grove

Location: Frederick County, Shenandoah County and Warren County

Date(s): October 19, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright and Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 52,945 total (US 31,945; CS 21,000)

Estimated Casualties: 8,575 total (US 5,665; CS 2,910)

Description: At dawn, October 19, 1864, the Confederate Army of the Valley under Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early surprised the Federal army at Cedar Creek and routed the VIII and XIX Army Corps.  Commander Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan arrived from Winchester to rally his troops, and, in the afternoon, launched a crushing counterattack, which recovered the battlefield. Sheridan’s victory at Cedar Creek broke the back of the Confederate army in the Shenandoah Valley. Lincoln rode the momentum of Sheridan’s victories in the Valley and Sherman’s successes in Georgia to re-election.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Cedar Mountain  

Other Names: Slaughter’s Mountain, Cedar Run

Location: Culpeper County

Date(s): August 9, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 24,898 total (US 8,030; CS 16,868)

Estimated Casualties: 2,707 total (US 1,400; CS 1,307)

Description: Maj. Gen. John Pope was placed in command of the newly constituted Army of Virginia on June 26. Gen. Robert E. Lee responded to Pope’s dispositions by dispatching Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson with 14,000 men to Gordonsville in July. Jackson was later reinforced by A.P. Hill’s division. In early August, Pope marched his forces south into Culpeper County with the objective of capturing the rail junction at Gordonsville. On August 9, Jackson and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks’s corps tangled at Cedar Mountain with the Federals gaining an early advantage. A Confederate counterattack led by A.P. Hill repulsed the Federals and won the day. Confederate general William Winder was killed. This battle shifted fighting in Virginia from the Peninsula to Northern Virginia, giving Lee the initiative.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Chaffin’s Farm/New Market Heights  

Other Names: Combats at New Market Heights, Forts Harrison, Johnson, and Gilmer; Laurel Hill

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): September 29-30, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 4,430 total

Description: During the night of September 28-29, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James crossed James River to assault the Richmond defenses north of the river. The columns attacked at dawn. After initial Union successes at New Market Heights and Fort Harrison, the Confederates rallied and contained the breakthrough. Lee reinforced his lines north of the James and, on September 30, he counterattacked unsuccessfully. The Federals entrenched, and the Confederates erected a new line of works cutting off the captured forts.  Union general Burnham was killed. As Grant anticipated, Lee shifted troops to meet the threat against Richmond, weakening his lines at Petersburg.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Chancellorsville  

Other Names: None

Location: Spotsylvania County

Date(s): April 30-May 6, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 154,734 total (US 97,382; CS 57,352)

Estimated Casualties: 24,000 total (US 14,000; CS 10,000)

Description: On April 27, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker led the V, XI, and XII Corps on a campaign to turn the Confederate left flank by crossing the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers above Fredericksburg. Passing the Rapidan via Germanna and Ely’s Fords, the Federals concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30 and May 1. The III Corps was ordered to join the army via United States Ford. Sedgwick’s VI Corps and Gibbon’s division remained to demonstrate against the Confederates at Fredericksburg. In the meantime, Lee left a covering force under Maj. Gen. Jubal Early in Fredericksburg and marched with the rest of the army to confront the Federals. As Hooker’s army moved toward Fredericksburg on the Orange Turnpike, they encountered increasing Confederate resistance. Hearing reports of overwhelming Confederate force, Hooker ordered his army to suspend the advance and to concentrate again at Chancellorsville. Pressed closely by Lee’s advance, Hooker adopted a defensive posture, thus giving Lee the initiative.  On the morning of May 2, Lt. Gen. T.J. Jackson directed his corps on a march against the Federal left flank, which was reported to be  “hanging in the air.” Fighting was sporadic on other portions of the field throughout the day, as Jackson’s column reached its jump-off point. At 5:20 pm, Jackson’s line surged forward in an overwhelming attack that crushed the Union XI Corps. Federal troops rallied, resisted the advance, and counterattacked. Disorganization on both sides and darkness ended the fighting. While making a night reconnaissance, Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men and carried from the field. J.E.B. Stuart took temporary command of Jackson’s Corps. On May 3, the Confederates attacked with both wings of the army and massed their artillery at Hazel Grove. This finally broke the Federal line at Chancellorsville. Hooker withdrew a mile and entrenched in a defensive “U” with his back to the river at United States Ford. Union generals Berry and Whipple and Confederate general Paxton were killed; Stonewall  Jackson was mortally wounded. On the night of May 5-6, after Union reverses at Salem Church, Hooker recrossed to the north bank of the Rappahannock. This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest victory.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Chantilly  

Other Names: Ox Hill

Location: Fairfax County

Date(s): September 1, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Kearny and Maj. Gen. Isaac Stevens [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 2,100 total (US 1,300; CS 800)

Description: Making a wide flank march, Jackson hoped to cut off the Union retreat from Bull Run. On September 1, beyond Chantilly Plantation on the Little River Turnpike near Ox Hill, Jackson sent his divisions against two Union divisions under Kearny and Stevens. Confederate attacks were stopped by fierce fighting during a severe thunderstorm. Union generals Stevens and Kearny were both killed. Recognizing that his army was still in danger at Fairfax Courthouse, Maj. Gen. Pope ordered the retreat to continue to Washington. With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan assumed command of Union forces around Washington.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Confederate strategic victory.)

Battle of Chester Station  

Other Names: None

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 10, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 569 total

Description: On May 10, elements of Maj. Gen. Robert Ransom’s division conducted a reconnaissance-in-force against a portion of Butler’s army that was destroying the railroad at Chester Station.  The Confederates attacked near the Winfree House, and the Federals retired to their Bermuda Hundred lines.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Cloyd’s Mountain   

Other Names: None

Location: Pulaski County

Date(s): May 9, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. George Crook [US]; Brig. Gen. Albert Jenkins [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions (approx. 10,000)

Estimated Casualties: 1,500 total

Description: On May 9, Crook’s three brigades (6,100 men) on a raid into southwestern Virginia encountered a patchwork Confederate force under Brig. Gen. Albert Jenkins at Cloyd’s Mountain. Fighting was furious and hand-to-hand. Casualties were heavy for the size of the forces engaged: Union 10%, Confederate 23%. Jenkins was mortally wounded. Crook afterwards joined forces with Averell, who had burned the New River Bridge, and the united column withdrew to Meadow Bluff after destroying several important railroad bridges.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Cockpit Point  

Other Names: Batteries at Evansport, Freestone Point, Shipping Point

Location: Prince William County

Date(s): January 3, 1862

Commanders: Lt. R.H. Wyman [US]; Brig. Gen. S.G. French [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: None

Description: After victory at First Manassas, the Confederate army established a defensive line from Centreville along the Occoquan River to the Potomac River. In October, the Confederates constructed batteries at Evansport, Freestone Point, Shipping Point, and Cockpit Point to close the Potomac River to shipping and isolate Washington. By mid-December, the Confederates had 37 heavy guns in position along the river. On January 3, Cockpit Point was shelled by Anacostia and Yankee with neither side gaining an advantage. Union ships approached the point again on March 9 but discovered that the Confederates had abandoned their works and retired closer to Richmond, after effectively sealing off the Potomac River for nearly five months.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Cold Harbor  

Other Names: Second Cold Harbor

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): May 31-June 12, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 170,000 total (US 108,000; CS 62,000)

Estimated Casualties: 15,500 total (US 13,000; CS 2,500)

Description: On May 31, Sheridan’s cavalry seized the vital crossroads of Old Cold Harbor. Early on June 1, relying heavily on their new repeating carbines and shallow entrenchments, Sheridan’s troopers threw back an attack by Confederate infantry. Confederate reinforcements arrived from Richmond and from the Totopotomoy Creek lines. Late on June 1, the Union VI and XVIII Corps reached Cold Harbor and assaulted the Confederate works with some success. By June 2, both armies were on the field, forming on a seven-mile front that extended from Bethesda Church to the Chickahominy River. At dawn June 3, the II and XVIII Corps, followed later by the IX Corps, assaulted along the Bethesda Church-Cold Harbor line and were slaughtered at all points. Grant commented in his memoirs that this was the only attack he wished he had never ordered. The armies confronted each other on these lines until the night of June 12, when Grant again advanced by his left flank, marching to James River. On June 14, the II Corps was ferried across the river at Wilcox’s Landing by transports. On June 15, the rest of the army began crossing on a 2,200-foot long pontoon bridge at Weyanoke. Abandoning the well-defended approaches to Richmond, Grant sought to shift his army quickly south of the river to threaten Petersburg.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Cool Spring  

Other Names: Island Ford, Parkers Ford, Snickers Ferry, Castleman’s Ferry

Location: Clarke County

Date(s): July 17-18, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 13,000 total (US 5,000; CS 8,000)

Estimated Casualties: 819 total (US 422; CS 397)

Description: A Union column, consisting of the VI Corps and elements of the XIX Corps under Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright, pursued Early’s army as it withdrew from the environs of Washington, D.C.  Wright’s force was joined by elements of Crook’s command, which had accompanied Hunter during his retreat through West Virginia.  On July 17, the Union cavalry passed through Snickers Gap and attempted to force passage of the Shenandoah River at Snickers Ford (Castleman’s Ferry). On the morning of July 18, the vanguard of the Union infantry moved through Snickers Gap. Col. Joseph Thoburn (of Crook’s command) led his division downstream to cross the river at Judge Richard Parker’s Ford. Early’s three nearby infantry divisions moved to defend the fords. In the afternoon, Rodes’s division attacked and shattered Thoburn’s right flank on the Cool Spring plantation. Thoburn made a stand behind a stone wall at the river’s edge and beat off three attacks until darkness enabled him to withdraw. Union pursuit of Early was delayed several days.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Cove Mountain  

Other Names: None

Location: Wythe County

Date(s): May 10, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell [US]; Brig. Gen. William. E. Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 300 total

Description: On May 10, Brig. Gen. W.W. Averell’s raiders encountered a brigade under William “Grumble” Jones near Cove Mountain. After delaying the Union advance, the Confederates withdrew. The next day, Averell reached the New River Bridge on the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, which he burned.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Crater  

Other Names: The Mine

Location: Petersburg

Date(s): July 30, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: IX Corps [US]; elements of the Army of Northern Virginia [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 5,300 total

Description: After weeks of preparation, on July 30 the Federals exploded a mine in Burnside’s IX Corps sector beneath Pegram’s Salient, blowing a gap in the Confederate defenses of Petersburg.  From this propitious beginning, everything deteriorated rapidly for the Union attackers. Unit after unit charged into and around the crater, where soldiers milled in confusion. The Confederates quickly recovered and launched several counterattacks led by Maj. Gen. William Mahone. The break was sealed off, and the Federals were repulsed with severe casualties. Ferrarro’s division of black soldiers was badly mauled. This may have been Grant’s best chance to end the Siege of Petersburg. Instead, the soldiers settled in for another eight months of trench warfare. Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside was relieved of command for his role in the debacle.

Result(s): Confederate victory

 Battle of Cross Keys  

Other Names: None

Location: Rockingham County

Date(s): June 8, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell [CS]

Forces Engaged: 17,300 total (US 11,500; CS 5,800)

Estimated Casualties: 951 total (US 664; CS 287)

Description: Moving up the Shenandoah Valley in pursuit of Jackson’s army, Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont’s army encountered Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell’s division at Cross Keys on June 8.  Brig. Gen. Julius Stahel’s brigade, attacking on the Union left, was stunned by a surprise volley from Trimble’s command and driven back in confusion. After feeling out other parts of the Confederate line, Frémont withdrew to the Keezletown Road under protection of his batteries. The next day, Trimble’s and Patton’s brigades held Frémont at bay, while the rest of Ewell’s force crossed the river to assist in the defeat of Brig. Gen. E. Tyler’s command at Port Republic.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Cumberland Church   

Other Names: Farmville

Location: Cumberland County

Date(s): April 7, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 910 total (US 655; CS 255)

Description: Near 2 pm on April 7, the advance of the Union II Corps encountered Confederate forces entrenched on high ground near Cumberland Church. The Union forces attacked twice but were repulsed, and darkness halted the conflict. Union general Smythe was mortally wounded nearby, and J.I. Gregg was captured north of Farmville.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Darbytown & New Market Roads  

Other Names: Johnson’s Farm, Fourmile Creek

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): October 7, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. A. Kautz and Maj. Gen. David Birney [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,750 total

Description: Responding to the loss of Fort Harrison and the increasing Federal threat against Richmond, Gen. Robert E. Lee directed an offensive against the Union far right flank on October 7. After routing the Federal cavalry from their position covering Darbytown Road, Field’s and Hoke’s divisions assaulted the main Union defensive line along New Market Road and were repulsed. Confederate Gen.  John Gregg of the Texas brigade was killed. The Federals were not dislodged, and Lee withdrew into the Richmond defenses.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Darbytown Road  

Other Names: Alms House

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): October 13, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Terry [US]; Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 950 total

Description: On October 13, Union forces advanced to find and feel the new Confederate defensive line in front of Richmond.  While mostly a battle of skirmishers, a Federal brigade assaulted fortifications north of Darbytown Road and was repulsed with heavy casualties. The Federals retired to their entrenched lines along New Market Road.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Deep Bottom #1

Other Names: Darbytown, Strawberry Plains, New Market Road, Gravel Hill

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): July 27-29, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock [US]; Maj. Gen. Charles Field [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,000 total

Description: During the night of July 26-27, the Union II Corps and two divisions of Sheridan’s cavalry under command of  Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock crossed to the north side of James River to threaten Richmond. This demonstration diverted Confederate forces from the impending attack at Petersburg on July 30. Union efforts to turn the Confederate position at New Market Heights and Fussell’s Mill were abandoned when the Confederates strongly reinforced their lines and counterattacked. During the night of July 29, the Federals recrossed the river leaving a garrison as heretofore to hold the bridgehead at Deep Bottom.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Deep Bottom #2  

Other Names: New Market Road, Fussell’s Mill, Bailey’s Creek, Charles City Road, and White’s Tavern

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): August 13-20, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Maj. Gen. Charles Field [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 4,600 total

Description: During the night of August 13-14, the Union II Corps, X Corps, and Gregg’s cavalry division, all under command of  Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, crossed James River at Deep Bottom to threaten Richmond, coordinating with a movement against the Weldon Railroad at Petersburg. On August 14, the X Corps closed on New Market Heights while the II Corps extended the Federal line to the right along Bailey’s Creek. During the night, the X Corps was moved to the far right flank of the Union line near Fussell’s Mill. On August 16, Union assaults near Fussell’s Mill were initially successful, but Confederate counterattacks drove the Federals out of a line of captured works. Heavy fighting continued throughout the remainder of the day.  Confederate general John Chambliss was killed during cavalry fighting on Charles City Road. After continual skirmishing, the Federals returned to the southside of the James on the 20th, maintaining their bridgehead at Deep Bottom.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Dinwiddie Court House  

Other Names: None

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): March 31, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Maj. Gen. George Pickett and Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 65,277 total (US 45,247; CS 20,030)

Estimated Casualties: 821 total

Description: On March 29, with the Cavalry Corps and the II and V Corps, Sheridan undertook a flank march to turn Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Petersburg defenses. A steady downpour turned the roads to mud, slowing the advance. On March 31, Maj. Gen. W.H. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry and Pickett’s infantry division met the Union vanguard north and northwest of Dinwiddie Court House and drove it back, temporarily stalling Sheridan’s movement. With Union infantry approaching from the east, Pickett withdrew before daybreak to entrench at the vital road junction at Five Forks. Lee ordered Pickett to hold this intersection at all hazard.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Dranesville  

Other Names: None

Location: Fairfax County

Date(s): December 20, 1861

Commanders: Brig. Gen. E.O.C. Ord [US]; Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 301 total (US 71; CS 230)

Description: Brig. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart led a brigade-sized mixed force of cavalry, infantry, and artillery to protect a foraging expedition in the vicinity of Dranesville. Union Brig. Gen. E.O.C. Ord, advancing on the Georgetown Pike, encountered Stuart’s cavalry.  Both sides deployed as more units arrived on the field, and a sharp firefight developed. Stuart withdrew in the mid-afternoon after ensuring that his wagons were safely in the rear.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Drewry’s Bluff   

Other Names: Fort Darling, Fort Drewry

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 15, 1862

Commanders: Cdr. John Rodgers [US]; Cdr. E. Farrand, Brig. Gen. William Mahone, Capt. S. S. Lee, and Lt. John Taylor Wood [CS]

Forces Engaged: 5 gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 41 total

Description: With the fall of Yorktown, the Confederate ironclad Virginia at Norfolk was scuttled to prevent her capture. This opened the James River to Federal gunboats. On May 15, five gunboats, including the ironclads Monitor and Galena, steamed up the James to test the Richmond defenses. They encountered submerged obstacles and deadly accurate fire from the batteries at Drewry’s Bluff, which inflicted severe damage on the Galena. The Federal Navy was turned back.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Eltham’s Landing  

Other Names: Barhamsville, West Point

Location: New Kent County

Date(s): May 7, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. William B. Franklin [US]; Maj. Gen. Gustavius W. Smith [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 242 total (US 194; CS 48)

Description: Franklin’s Union division landed at Eltham’s Landing and was attacked by two brigades of Smith’s command, reacting to the threat to the Confederate army’s trains on the Barhamsville Road. Franklin’s movement occurred while the Confederate army was withdrawing from the Williamsburg line.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road  

Other Names: Second Fair Oaks

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): October 27-28, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,750 total

Description: In combination with movements against the Boydton Plank Road at Petersburg, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler attacked the Richmond defenses along Darbytown Road with the X Corps. The XVIII Corps marched north to Fair Oaks where it was soundly repulsed by Field’s Confederate division. Confederate forces counterattacked, taking some 600 prisoners. The Richmond defenses remained intact. Of Grant’s offensives north of the James River, this was repulsed most easily.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Fisher’s Hill   

Other Names: None

Location: Shenandoah County

Date(s): September 21-22, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 38,944 total (US 29,444; CS 9,500)

Estimated Casualties: 1,763 total (US 528; CS 1,235)

Description: Early’s army, bloodied by its defeat at Opequon (Third Winchester) on September 19, took up a strong defensive position at Fisher’s Hill, south of Strasburg. On September 21, the Union army advanced, driving back the skirmishers and capturing important high ground. On the 22nd, Crook’s Corps moved along North Mountain to outflank Early and attacked about 4 pm. The Confederate cavalry offered little resistance, and the startled infantry were unable to face the attacking force. The Confederate defense collapsed from west to east as Sheridan’s other corps join in the assault. Early retreated to Rockfish Gap near Waynesboro, opening the Valley to a Union “scorched earth” invasion. Mills and barns from Staunton to Strasburg were burned in what became known as the “Burning” or “Red October.”

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Five Forks  

Other Names: None

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): April 1, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Maj. Gen. George Pickett [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 3,780 total (US 830; CS 2,950)

Description:Gen. Robert E. Lee ordered Pickett with his infantry division and Munford’s, W.H.F. Lee’s, and Rosser’s cavalry divisions to hold the vital crossroads of Five Forks at all hazard. On April 1, while Sheridan’s cavalry pinned the Confederate force in position, the V Corps under Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren attacked and overwhelmed the Confederate left flank, taking many prisoners. Sheridan personally directed the attack, which extended Lee’s Petersburg lines to the breaking point. Loss of Five Forks threatened Lee’s last supply line, the South Side Railroad. The next morning, Lee informed Jefferson Davis that Petersburg and Richmond must be evacuated. Union general Winthrop was killed; “Willie” Pegram, beloved Confederate artillery officer, was mortally wounded.  Dissatisfied with his performance at Five Forks, Sheridan relieved Warren of command of the V Corps.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Fort Stedman   

Other Names: None

Location: Petersburg

Date(s): March 25, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John G. Parke [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 3,850 total (US 950; CS 2,900)

Description: In a last-gasp offensive, Gen. Robert E. Lee amassed nearly half of his army in an attempt to break through Grant’s Petersburg defenses and threaten his supply depot at City Point.  Directed by Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, the pre-dawn assault on March 25 overpowered the garrisons of Fort Stedman and Batteries X, XI, and XII. The Confederates were brought under a killing crossfire, and counterattacks led by Maj. Gens. Parke and Hartranft contained the breakthrough, cut off, and captured more than 1,900 of the attackers. During the day, elements of the II and VI Corps assaulted and captured the entrenched picket lines in their respective fronts, which had been weakened for the assault on Fort Stedman. This was a devastating blow for Lee’s army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1 and the fall of Petersburg on April 2-3.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Fredericksburg #1  

Other Names: Marye’s Heights

Location: Spotsylvania County and Fredericksburg

Date(s): December 11-15, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 172,504 total (US 100,007; CS 72,497)

Estimated Casualties: 17,929 total (US 13,353; CS 4,576)

Description: On November 14, Burnside, now in command of the Army of the Potomac, sent a corps to occupy the vicinity of Falmouth near Fredericksburg. The rest of the army soon followed.  Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town. On December 11, Union engineers laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. On the 12th, the Federal army crossed over, and on December 13, Burnside mounted a series of futile frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights that resulted in staggering casualties. Meade’s division, on the Union left flank, briefly penetrated Jackson’s line but was driven back by a counterattack. Union generals C. Feger Jackson and George Bayard, and Confederate generals Thomas R.R. Cobb and Maxey Gregg were killed. On December 15, Burnside called off the offensive and recrossed the river, ending the campaign.  Burnside initiated a new offensive in January 1863, which quickly bogged down in the winter mud. The abortive “Mud March” and other failures led to Burnside’s replacement by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker in January 1863.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Fredericksburg #2   

Other Names: Marye’s Heights

Location: Fredericksburg

Date(s): May 3, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick [US]; Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,000 total

Description: On May 1, Gen. Robert E. Lee left Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early’s division to hold Fredericksburg, while marching with the rest of the army to meet Hooker’s main offensive thrust at Chancellorsville. On May 3, the Union VI Corps under Sedgwick, reinforced by John Gibbon’s II Corps division, having crossed the Rappahannock River, assaulted and carried the Confederate entrenchments on Marye’s Heights. The outnumbered Confederates withdrew and regrouped west and southeast of town.

Result(s): Union victory

 Battle of Front Royal   

Other Names: Guard Hill, Cedarville

Location: Warren County

Date(s): May 23, 1862

Commanders: Col. John R. Kenly [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4,063 total (US 1,063; CS 3,000)

Estimated Casualties: 960 total (US 904; CS 56)

Description: On May 23, Confederate forces, spearheaded by the Louisiana “Tigers” and the 1st Maryland, surprised and overran the pickets of a 1,000-man Union garrison under Col. Kenly at Front Royal. Driven through the town, the Federals made a stand on Camp Hill and again at Guard Hill after attempting to fire the river bridges. Outnumbered and outflanked, Kenly continued the retreat to Cedarville, where two cavalry charges led by Maj. Flournoy broke the roadblock and routed the Union force. Nearly 900 Federals surrendered.  Jackson’s victory at Front Royal forced the Union army under Banks at Strasburg into a rapid retreat towards Winchester.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Gaines’ Mill  

Other Names: First Cold Harbor

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): June 27, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 91,232 total (US 34,214; CS 57,018)

Estimated Casualties: 15,500 total (US 6,800; CS 8,700)

Description: This was the third of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 27, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee renewed his attacks against Porter’s V Corps, which had established a strong defensive line behind Boatswain’s Swamp north of the Chickahominy River. Porter’s reinforced V Corps held fast for the afternoon against disjointed Confederate attacks, inflicting heavy casualties. At dusk, the Confederates finally mounted a coordinated assault that broke Porter’s line and drove his soldiers back toward the river. The Federals retreated across the river during the night. Defeat at Gaines’ Mill convinced McClellan to abandon his advance on Richmond and begin the retreat to James River. Gaines’ Mill saved Richmond for the Confederacy in 1862.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Garnett’s & Golding’s Farms  

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): June 27-28, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 830 total

Description: While battle raged north of the Chickahominy River at Gaines’ Mill on June 27, Magruder demonstrated against the Union line south of the river at Garnett’s Farm. To escape an artillery crossfire, the Federal defenders from Maj. Gen. Samuel P. Heintzelman’s III Corps refused their line along the river. The Confederates attacked again near Golding’s Farm on the morning of June 28 but were easily repulsed. These “fixing” actions heightened the fear in the Union high command that an all out attack would be launched against them south of the river.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Glendale/White Oak Swamp   

Other Names: Nelson’s Farm, Frayser’s Farm, Charles City Crossroads, White Oak Swamp, New Market Road, Riddell’s Shop

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): June 30, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. William Franklin, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee, Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 7000 total

Description:

Glendale – This is the fifth of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 30, Huger’s, Longstreet’s, and A.P. Hill’s divisions converged on the retreating Union army in the vicinity of Glendale or Frayser’s Farm.  Longstreet’s and Hill’s attacks penetrated the Union defense near Willis Church, routing McCall’s division. McCall was captured.  Union counterattacks by Hooker’s and Kearny’s divisions sealed the break and saved their line of retreat along the Willis Church Road. Huger’s advance was stopped on the Charles City Road.   “Stonewall”  Jackson’s divisions were delayed by Franklin at White Oak Swamp. Confederate Maj. Gen. T.H. Holmes made a feeble attempt to turn the Union left flank at Turkey Bridge but was driven back by Federal gunboats in James River. Union generals Meade and Sumner and Confederate generals Anderson, Pender, and Featherston were wounded. This was Lee’s best chance to cut off the Union army from the James River. That night, McClellan established a strong position on Malvern Hill.

White Oak Swamp – The Union rearguard under Maj. Gen. William Franklin stopped Jackson’s divisions at the White Oak Bridge crossing, resulting in an artillery duel, while the main battle raged two miles farther south at Glendale or Frayser’s Farm.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Globe Tavern   

Other Names: Second Battle of Weldon Railroad, Yellow Tavern, Yellow House, Blick’s Station

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): August 18-21, 1864

Commanders:   Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee, Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill, Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, and Maj. Gen. William Mahone [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps (34,300 total)

Estimated Casualties: 5,879 total (4,279 US; 1,600 CS)

Description: While Hancock’s command demonstrated north of the James River at Deep Bottom, the Union V Corps and elements of the IX and II Corps under command of Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren were withdrawn from the Petersburg entrenchments to operate against the Weldon Railroad. At dawn August 18, Warren advanced, driving back Confederate pickets until reaching the railroad at Globe Tavern. In the afternoon, Maj. Gen. Henry Heth’s division attacked driving Ayres’s division back toward the tavern. Both sides entrenched during the night. On August 19, Maj. Gen. William Mahone, whose division had been hastily returned from north of James River, attacked with five infantry brigades, rolling up the right flank of Crawford’s division. Heavily reinforced, Warren counterattacked and by nightfall had retaken most of the ground lost during the afternoon’s fighting. On the 20th, the Federals laid out and entrenched a strong defensive line covering the Blick House and Globe Tavern and extending east to connect with the main Federal lines at Jerusalem Plank Road. On August 21, Hill probed the new Federal line for weaknesses but could not penetrate the Union defenses. With the fighting at Globe Tavern, Grant succeeded in extending his siege lines to the west and cutting Petersburg’s primary rail connection with Wilmington, North Carolina. The Confederates were now forced to off-load rail cars at Stony Creek Station for a 30-mile wagon haul up Boydton Plank Road to reach Petersburg. Confederate general John C.C. Sanders was killed on August 21.

Result(s): Union victory

 Battle of Guard Hill   

Other Names: Front Royal, Cedarville

Location: Warren County

Date(s): August 16, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt [US]; Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 550 total

Description: Kershaw’s infantry division and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry, under overall command of Lt. Gen. Richard Anderson (Army of Northern Virginia, I Corps) were sent from Petersburg to reinforce Early’s army in the Valley. At Front Royal on the August 16, Union cavalry of Brig. Gen. Wesley Merritt’s division surprised the Confederate columns in mid-stream of the Shenandoah River, capturing about 300. The Confederates rallied and advanced, gradually driving the two Union brigades back to Cedarville. After dark, Merritt withdrew to Ninevah.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Hampton Roads  

Other Names: Monitor vs. Virginia (Merrimack), Battle of the Ironclads

Location: Hampton Roads

Date(s): March 8-9, 1862

Commanders: Lt. John Worden [US]; Capt. Franklin Buchanan and Lt. Catesby R. Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4 warships [US]; 1 warship [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 433 total (US 409; CS 24)

Description: On March 8, 1862, from her berth at Norfolk, the Confederate ironclad Virginia steamed into Hampton Roads where she sank Cumberland and ran Congress aground. On March 9, the Union ironclad Monitor having fortuitously arrived to do battle, initiated the first engagement of ironclads in history. The two ships fought each other to a standstill, but Virginia retired.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Hanover Court House  

Other Names: Slash Church

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): May 27, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter [US]; Brig. Gen. Lawrence O’B. Branch [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,327 total (US 397; CS 930)

Description: On May 27, 1862, elements of Brig. Gen. Fitz John Porter’s V Corps extended north to protect the right flank of McClellan’s Union army that now straddled the Chickahominy River. Porter’s objective was to cut the railroad and to open the Telegraph Road for Union reinforcements under Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell that were marching south from Fredericksburg.  Confederate forces, attempting to prevent this maneuver, were defeated just south of Hanover Courthouse after a stiff fight. The Union victory was moot, however, for McDowell’s reinforcements were recalled to Fredericksburg upon word of Banks’s rout at First Winchester.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Hatcher’s Run   

Other Names: Dabney’s Mill, Rowanty Creek, Armstrong’s Mill, Vaughan Road

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): February 5-7, 1865

Commanders: Commanders: Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys and Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon [CS]

Forces Engaged: 48,352 total (US 34,517; CS 13,835)

Estimated Casualties: 2,700 total

Description: On February 5, Bvt. Brig. Gen. David Gregg’s cavalry division rode out to the Boydton Plank Road via Ream’s Station and Dinwiddie Court House in an attempt to intercept Confederate supply trains.  Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren with the V Corps crossed Hatcher’s Run and took up a blocking position on the Vaughan Road to prevent interference with Gregg’s operations.  Two divisions of the II Corps under Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys shifted west to near Armstrong’s Mill to cover Warren’s right flank.  Late in the day, Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon attempted to turn Humphreys right flank near the mill but was repulsed.  During the night, the Federals were reinforced by two divisions.  On February 6, Gregg returned to Gravelly Run on the Vaughan Road from his unsuccessful raid and was attacked by elements of Brig. Gen. John Pegram’s Confederate division.  Warren pushed forward a reconnaissance in the vicinity of Dabney’s Mill and was attacked by Pegram’s and Maj. Gen. William Mahone’s divisions.  Pegram was killed in the action.  Although the Union advance was stopped, the Federals extended their siegeworks to the Vaughan Road crossing of Hatcher’s Run.

Result(s): Union gained ground

Battle of Haw’s Shop  

Other Names: Enon Church

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): May 28, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg [US]; Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 744 total (US 344; CS 400)

Description: Gregg’s cavalry division, supported by Torbert’s division, advanced to cover the Army of the Potomac’s crossing of the Pamunkey River and movement toward Totopotomoy Creek.  Fitzhugh Lee’s and Hampton’s cavalry divisions, later reinforced by Butler’s South Carolina brigade, met the Federals at Enon Church.  After seven hours of mostly dismounted cavalry fighting, the Federal advance was stopped. Both Confederate and Union infantry began arriving in the vicinity as the cavalry fighting raged.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of High Bridge   

Other Names: None

Location: Prince Edward County and Cumberland County

Date(s): April 6-7, 1865

Commanders: April 6: Col. T. Read [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas Rosser [CS]. April 7: Maj. Gen. A.A. Humphreys [US];  Maj. Gen. William Mahone [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,200 total (US 800 captured)

Description: On April 6, the Confederate cavalry fought stubbornly to secure the Appomattox River bridges. Confederate general Dearing was mortally wounded. On April 7, elements of the II Corps came up against Longstreet’s rear guard attempting to fire the High Bridge and wagon bridge. Union forces were able to save the wagon bridge over which the II Corps crossed in pursuit of Lee’s army. Failure to destroy this bridge enabled Union forces to catch up with the Confederates at Farmville.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road  

Other Names: First Battle of Weldon Railroad

Location: Dinwiddie County and Petersburg

Date(s): June 21-24, 1864

Commander: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 4,000 total

Description: On June 21, the Union II Corps, supported by the VI Corps, attempted to cut the Weldon Railroad, one of the major supply lines into Petersburg. The movement was preceded by Wilson’s cavalry division which began destroying tracks. On June 22, troops from Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill’s corps led by Brig. Gen. William Mahone counterattacked, forcing the II Corps away from the railroad to positions on the Jerusalem Plank Road. Although the Federals were driven from their advanced positions, they were able to extend their siege lines farther to the west.

Result(s): Union gained ground

Battle of Kelly’s Ford   

Other Names: Kellysville

Location: Culpeper County

Date(s): March 17, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell [US]; Brig. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions (3,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 200 total

Description: Kelly’s Ford was one of the early larger scale cavalry fights in Virginia that set the stage for Brandy Station and cavalry actions of the Gettysburg campaign. Twenty-one hundred troopers of Averell’s cavalry division crossed the Rappahannock River to attack the Confederate cavalry. Fitzhugh Lee counterattacked with a brigade of about 800 men. The “Gallant” Pelham was killed. After achieving a localized success, Union forces withdrew in mid-afternoon.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Kernstown #1   

Other Names: None

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Date(s): March 23, 1862

Commanders: Col. Nathan Kimball [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 12,300 total (US 8,500; CS 3,800)

Estimated Casualties: 1,308 total (US 590; CS 718)

Description: Relying on faulty intelligence that reported the Union garrison at Winchester numbered only about 3,000, “Stonewall”  Jackson marched aggressively north with his 3,400-man division.  The 8,500 Federals, commanded by Col. Nathan Kimball, stopped Jackson at Kernstown and then counterattacked turning Jackson’s left flank and forcing him to retreat. Despite this Union victory, President Lincoln was disturbed by Jackson’s threat to Washington and redirected substantial reinforcements to the Valley, depriving McClellan’s army of these troops. McClellan claimed that the additional troops would have enabled him to take Richmond during his Peninsula campaign.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Kernstown #2  

Other Names: None

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Date(s): July 24, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. George Crook [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 23,000 total (US 10,000; CS 13,000)

Estimated Casualties: 1,800 total (US 1,200; CS 600)

Description: Believing that Early’s army was no longer a threat in the Valley, Maj. Gen. Horatio Wright abandoned his pursuit and ordered the VI and XIX Corps to return to Washington, where they were to be sent to Grant’s “army group” before Petersburg. Wright left Brig. Gen. George Crook with three divisions and some cavalry to hold Winchester. Under orders to prevent reinforcements from being sent to Grant, Early marched north on July 24 against Crook. After an hour of stubborn resistance at Pritchard’s Hill, the Federal line collapsed and Crook’s divisions streamed back in disarray through the streets of Winchester. Col. James Mulligan commanding Crook’s 3rd Division was mortally wounded. Rutherford B. Hayes commanded a brigade against John C. Breckinridge’s wing. Crook retreated to the Potomac River and crossed near Williamsport on July 26. As a result of this defeat and the burning of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on July 30, Grant returned the VI and XIX Corps and appointed Sheridan as commander of Union forces in the Valley.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Lewis’s Farm   

Other Names: Quaker Road, Military Road, Gravelly Road

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): March 29, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Maj. Gen. Bushrod R. Johnson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 850 total (US 380; CS 370)

Description: On March 29, in the opening moves of Grant’s spring offensive, Sheridan marched with the army’s cavalry followed by the V Corps toward Dinwiddie Court House to turn the right flank of Lee’s Petersburg defenses. The Union V Corps under Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren crossed Rowanty Creek, moved up the Quaker Road toward the Boydton Plank Road intersection, and encountered Johnson’s Confederate brigades. A sharp firefight forced the Confederates back to their entrenchments on the White Oak Road.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Lynchburg   

Other Names: None

Location: City of Lynchburg

Date(s): June 17-18, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. David Hunter [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps (44,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 900 total

Description: From Lexington, Maj. Gen. David Hunter advanced against the Confederate rail and canal depots and the hospital complex at Lynchburg. Reaching the outskirts of town on June 17, his first tentative attacks were thwarted by the timely arrival by rail of Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early’s II Corps vanguard from Charlottesville.  Hunter withdrew the next day after sporadic fighting because of a critical shortage of supplies. His line of retreat through West Virginia took his army out of the war for nearly a month and opened the Shenandoah Valley for a Confederate advance into Maryland.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Malvern Hill   

Other Names: Poindexter’s Farm

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): July 1, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 8,500 total

Description: This was the sixth and last of the Seven Days’ Battles. On July 1, 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee launched a series of disjointed assaults on the nearly impregnable Union position on Malvern Hill. The Confederates suffered more than 5,300 casualties without gaining an inch of ground. Despite his victory, McClellan withdrew to entrench at Harrison’s Landing on James River, where his army was protected by gunboats. This ended the Peninsula Campaign.  When McClellan’s army ceased to threaten Richmond, Lee sent Jackson to operate against Maj. Gen. John Pope’s army along the Rapidan River, thus initiating the Northern Virginia Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Manassas #1  

Other Names: First Bull Run

Location: Fairfax County and Prince William County

Date(s): July 21, 1861

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell [US]; Brig. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: 60,680 total (US 28,450; CS 32,230)

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,950; CS 1,750)

Description: This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia.  On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill.  Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements (one brigade arriving by rail from the Shenandoah Valley) extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Although victorious, Confederate forces were too disorganized to pursue. Confederate Gen. Bee and Col. Bartow were killed. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington. This battle convinced the Lincoln administration that the war would be a long and costly affair. McDowell was relieved of command of the Union army and replaced by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, who set about reorganizing and training the troops.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Manassas #2  

Other Names: Manassas, Second Bull Run, Manassas Plains, Groveton, Gainesville, Brawner’s Farm

Location: Prince William County

Date(s): August 28-30, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Pope [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 22,180 total (US 13,830; CS 8,350)

Description: In order to draw Pope’s army into battle, Jackson ordered an attack on a Federal column that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28. The fighting at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate.  Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Jackson’s position along an unfinished railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. At noon, Longstreet arrived on the field from Thoroughfare Gap and took position on Jackson’s right flank.  On August 30, Pope renewed his attacks, seemingly unaware that Longstreet was on the field. When massed Confederate artillery devastated a Union assault by Fitz John Porter’s command, Longstreet’s wing of 28,000 men counterattacked in the largest, simultaneous mass assault of the war. The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster. Pope’s retreat to Centreville was precipitous, nonetheless.  The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Manassas Gap  

Other Names: Wapping Heights

Location: Warren County

Date(s): July 23, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. William H. French [US]; Maj. Gen. Richard Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 440 total

Description: After recrossing the Potomac River at Williamsport, Lee’s army withdrew up the Shenandoah Valley.  Meade crossed the Potomac River east of the Blue Ridge and followed Lee into Virginia. On July 23, Meade ordered the III Corps, under Maj. Gen. William. H. French to cut off the retreating Confederate columns at Front Royal by forcing passage through Manassas Gap.  At first light, French began slowly pushing Walker’s Confederate brigade (Anderson’s division) back into the gap. About 4:30 pm, a strong Union attack drove Walker’s men until they were reinforced by Rodes’s division and artillery. By dusk, the poorly coordinated Union attacks were abandoned. During the night, Confederate forces withdrew into the Luray Valley. On July 24, the Union army occupied Front Royal, but Lee’s army was safely beyond pursuit.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Manassas Station Operations  

Other Names: None

Battles Associated with the Operations: Bristoe Station, Kettle Run, Bull Run Bridge, Union Mills

Location: Prince William County

Date(s): August 25-27,1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,100 total

Description: On the evening of August 26, after passing around Pope’s right flank via Thoroughfare Gap, Jackson’s wing of the army struck the Orange & Alexandria Railroad at Bristoe Station and before daybreak August 27 marched to capture and destroy the massive Union supply depot at Manassas Junction. This surprise movement forced Pope into an abrupt retreat from his defensive line along the Rappahannock River. On August 27, Jackson routed a Union brigade near Union Mills (Bull Run Bridge), inflicting several hundred casualties and mortally wounding Union Brig. Gen. G.W. Taylor. Ewell’s Division fought a brisk rearguard action against Hooker’s division at Kettle Run, resulting in about 600 casualties. Ewell held back Union forces until dark. During the night of August 27-28, Jackson marched his divisions north to the First Manassas battlefield, where he took position behind an unfinished railroad grade.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Marion  

Other Names: None

Location: Smyth County

Date(s): December 17-18, 1864

Commanders: Col. Maj. Gen. George Stoneman [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 274 total

Description: Riding through the Cumberland Gap, Stoneman’s expedition advanced on the important lead mines and salt ponds around Marion and Saltville. On December 17, Stoneman defeated a makeshift force of Confederate defenders. On the 18th, the Federals destroyed the leadworks and mines. On the 20th, they captured and destroyed the salt works at Saltville.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of McDowell  

Other Names: Sitlington’s Hill

Location: Highland County

Date(s): May 8, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy and Brig. Gen. Robert Schenck [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 12,500 total (US 6,500; CS 6,000)

Estimated Casualties:   720 (surgeon’s list reports 556)

Description: From Staunton, Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson marched his army west along the Parkersburg Road to confront two brigades of Frémont’s force (Milroy and Schenck), advancing toward the Shenandoah Valley from western Virginia. At McDowell on May 8, Milroy seized the initiative and assaulted the Confederate position on Sitlington’s Hill. The Federals were repulsed after severe fighting, lasting four hours. Afterwards, Milroy and Schenck withdrew into western Virginia, freeing up Jackson’s army to march against the other Union columns threatening the Valley.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Middleburg   

Other Names: None

Location: Loudoun County

Date(s): June 17-19, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 390 total

Description: Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, screening Lee’s invasion route, sparred with Pleasonton’s cavalry. On the June 17, Col. Alfred Duffié’s isolated 1st Rhode Island Cavalry Regiment was attacked by the brigades of Munford and Robertson. The 1st Rhode Island Cavalry was routed, taking about 250 casualties. On June 19, J. Irvin Gregg’s brigade advanced, driving Stuart’s cavalry one mile beyond the town. Both sides were reinforced and mounted and dismounted skirmishing continued. Stuart was gradually levered out of his position but fell back to a second ridge, still covering the approaches to the Blue Ridge gap.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Mine Run   

Other Names: Payne’s Farm, New Hope Church

Location: Orange County

Date(s): November 27-December 2, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies: 114,069 total (US 69,643; CS 44,426)

Estimated Casualties: 1,952 total (US 1,272; CS 680)

Description: Payne’s Farm and New Hope Church were the first and heaviest clashes of the Mine Run Campaign. In late November 1863, Meade attempted to steal a march through the Wilderness and strike the right flank of the Confederate army south of the Rapidan River.  Maj. Gen. Jubal A. Early in command of Ewell’s Corps marched east on the Orange Turnpike to meet the advance of William French’s III Corps near Payne’s Farm. Carr’s division (US) attacked twice. Johnson’s division (CS) counterattacked but was scattered by heavy fire and broken terrain. After dark, Lee withdrew to prepared field fortifications along Mine Run. The next day the Union army closed on the Confederate position. Skirmishing was heavy, but a major attack did not materialize. Meade concluded that the Confederate line was too strong to attack and retired during the night of December 1-2, ending the winter campaign.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Namozine Church   

Other Names: None

Location: Amelia County

Date(s): April 3 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George A. Custer [US]; Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 75 total

Description:  Description: Rearguard cavalry action. A brigade of Union cavalry under Col. William Well’s (Custer’s Division) attacked Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry near Namozine Church on April 3. Confederate Gen. Rufus Barringer was captured nearby. Result(s):

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of New Market  

Other Names: None

Location: Shenandoah County, Virginia

Date(s): May 15, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: 10,365 total (US 6,275; CS 4,090)

Estimated Casualties: 1,380 total (US 840; CS 540)

Description: In conjunction with his Spring offensive, Lt. Gen. U.S. Grant ordered Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel to move up the Shenandoah Valley along the Valley Pike with 10,000 men to destroy the railroad and canal complex at Lynchburg. At New Market on the 15th, Sigel was attacked by a makeshift Confederate army of about 4,100 men commanded by Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge. At a crucial point, a key Union battery was withdrawn from the line to replenish its ammunition, leaving a weakness that Breckinridge was quick to exploit. He ordered his entire force forward, and Sigel’s stubborn defense collapsed. Threatened by the Confederate cavalry on his left flank and rear, Sigel ordered a general withdrawal burning the North Fork bridge behind him.  Sigel retreated down the Valley to Strasburg and was soon replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of North Anna   

Other Names: Telegraph Road Bridge, Jericho Mill (May 23); Ox Ford, Quarles Mill, Hanover Junction (May 24)

Location: Caroline County and Hanover County

Date(s): May 23-26, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 4,000 total

Description: After the fighting at Spotsylvania Court House, Grant continued his Overland Offensive against Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. He was brought up short on the North Anna River by Lee’s widely studied “hog snout line,” which forced Grant to divide his army into three parts in order to attack. On May 23, 1864, one of A.P. Hill’s divisions assaulted the V Corps which had crossed the river at Jericho Mill, resulting in bloody see-saw fighting. On the 24th, Union infantry was repulsed at Ox Ford (the snout) but advanced to near the Doswell House on the Confederate right.  Lee hoped to strike an offensive blow, but he was ill, and the opportunity for defeating an isolated part of the Federal army passed. Once the threat of Lee’s position was revealed, Grant withdrew both wings of the army back across the North Anna River.  Grant outflanked the position by moving downstream and continued his advance on Richmond.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Oak Grove  

Other Names: French’s Field, King’s School House

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): June 25, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 1,057 total (US 516; CS 541)

Description: Oak Grove was the first of the Seven Days’ battles. On June 25, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan advanced his lines along the Williamsburg Road with the objective of  bringing Richmond within range of his siege guns. Union forces attacked over swampy ground with inconclusive results, and darkness halted the fighting. McClellan’s attack was not strong enough to derail the Confederate offensive that already had been set in motion. The next day, Lee seized the initiative by attacking at Beaver Dam Creek north of the Chickahominy.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Union forces withdrew to their lines.)

Battle of Old Church  

Other Names: Matadequin Creek

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): May 30, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alfred Torbert [US]; Brig. Gen. Matthew C. Butler [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 900 total

Description: With the armies stalemated along the Totopotomoy Creek line, the Federal cavalry began probing east and south. On May 30, Torbert’s Division attacked and defeated Butler’s Brigade near Old Church. Butler’s troopers were driven steadily back on the road to Old Cold Harbor, opening the door for Sheridan’s capture of the important crossroads the next day.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Opequon   

Other Names: Third Winchester

Location: Frederick County

Date(s): September 19, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 54,440 total(US 39,240; CS 15,200)

Estimated Casualties: 8,630 total (US 5,020; CS 3,610)

Description:After Kershaw’s division left Winchester to rejoin Lee’s army at Petersburg, Lt. Gen. Jubal A. Early renewed his raids on the B&O Railroad at Martinsburg, badly dispersing his four remaining infantry divisions. On September 19, Sheridan advanced toward Winchester along the Berryville Pike with the VI and XIX Corps, crossing Opequon Creek. The Union advance was delayed long enough for Early to concentrate his forces to meet the main assault, which continued for several hours. Casualties were very heavy. The Confederate line was gradually driven back toward the town. Mid-afternoon, Crook’s (VIII) Corps and the cavalry turned the Confederate left flank. Early ordered a general retreat.  Confederate generals Rodes and Goodwin were killed, Fitzhugh Lee, Terry, Johnson, and Wharton wounded. Union general Russell was killed, McIntosh, Upton, and Chapman wounded. Because of its size, intensity, and result, many historians consider this the most important conflict of the Shenandoah Valley.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Peebles’ Farm  

Other Names: Poplar Springs Church, Wyatt’s Farm, Chappell’s House, Pegram’s Farm, Vaughan Road, Harmon Road

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): September 30-October 2, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, and Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill and Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 3,800 total

Description:In combination with Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler’s offensive north of the James River, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant extended his left flank to cut Confederate lines of communication southwest of Petersburg. Two divisions of the IX corps under Maj. Gen. John G. Parke, two divisions of the V Corps under Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren, and Brig. Gen. David M. Gregg’s cavalry division were assigned to the operation. On September 30, the Federals marched via Poplar Spring Church to reach Squirrel Level and Vaughan Roads. The initial Federal attack overran Fort Archer, flanking the Confederates out of their Squirrel Level Road line. Late afternoon, Confederate reinforcements arrived, slowing the Federal advance. On October 1, the Federals repulsed a Confederate counterattack directed by Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. Reinforced by Maj. Gen. Gershom Mott’s  division, the Federals resumed their advance on the 2nd, captured Fort MacRae which was lightly defended, and extended their left flank to the vicinity of Peebles’ and Pegram’s Farms. With these limited successes, Meade suspended the offensive. A new line was entrenched from the Federal works on Weldon Railroad to Pegram’s Farm.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Petersburg #1  

Other Names: Old Men and Young Boys

Location: City of Petersburg

Date(s): June 9, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Quincy Gillmore [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard

Forces Engaged: 7,000 (US 4,500; CS 2,500)

Estimated Casualties: 120 total

Description: On June 9, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler dispatched about 4,500 cavalry and infantry against the 2,500 Confederate defenders of Petersburg. While Butler’s infantry demonstrated against the outer line of entrenchments east of Petersburg, Kautz’s cavalry division attempted to enter the city from the south via the Jerusalem Plank Road but was repulsed by Home Guards.  Afterwards, Butler withdrew. This was called the “battle of old men and young boys” by local residents. On June 14-17, the Army of the Potomac crossed the James River and began moving towards Petersburg to support and renew Butler’s assaults.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Petersburg #2

Other Names: Assault on Petersburg

Location: City of Petersburg

Date(s): June 15-18, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: 104,000 total (US 62,000; CS 42,000)

Estimated Casualties: 11,386 total (US 8,150; CS 3,236)

Description: Marching from Cold Harbor, Meade’s Army of the Potomac crossed the James River on transports and a 2,200-foot long pontoon bridge at Windmill Point. Butler’s leading elements (XVIII Corps and Kautz’s cavalry) crossed the Appomattox River at Broadway Landing and attacked the Petersburg defenses on June 15. The 5,400 defenders of Petersburg under command of Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard were driven from their first line of entrenchments back to Harrison Creek. After dark the XVIII Corps was relieved by the II Corps. On June 16, the II Corps captured another section of the Confederate line; on the 17th, the IX Corps gained more ground. Beauregard stripped the Howlett Line (Bermuda Hundred) to defend the city, and Lee rushed reinforcements to Petersburg from the Army of Northern Virginia. The II, XI, and V Corps from right to left attacked on June 18 but was repulsed with heavy casualties. By now the Confederate works were heavily manned and the greatest opportunity to capture Petersburg without a siege was lost. The siege of Petersburg began. Union Gen. James St. Clair Morton, chief engineer of the IX Corps, was killed on June 17.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Petersburg #3   

Other Names: Petersburg

Location: City of Petersburg

Date(s): April 2, 1865

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 7,750 total (US 3,500; CS 4,250)

Description: With Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1, Grant and Meade ordered a general assault against the Petersburg lines by II, IX, VI and XXIV Corps on April 2. A heroic defense of Fort Gregg by a handful of Confederates prevented the Federals from entering the city that night. Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill was killed trying to reach his troops in the confusion. After dark, Lee ordered the evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond. Grant had achieved one of the major military objectives of the war: the capture of Petersburg, which led to the fall of Richmond, the Capitol of the Confederacy.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Piedmont  

Other Names: Piedmont

Location: Augusta County

Date(s): June 5-6, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. David Hunter [US]; Brig. Gen. William E. Jones [CS]

Forces Engaged: 14,000 total (US 8,500; CS 5,500)

Estimated Casualties: 2,375 total (US 875; CS 1500)

Description: After replacing Sigel in command of Union forces in the Shenandoah Valley, Maj. Gen. David “Black Dave” Hunter renewed the Union offensive. On June 5, Hunter engaged the Confederate army under “Grumble” Jones north of Piedmont. After severe fighting, a flanking movement made by Thoburn’s brigade turned Jones’s right flank. While trying to stem the retreat of his soldiers, Jones was killed. The retreat became a rout. More than 1,000 Confederates, including 60 officers, were captured. Jones lost three guns. Hunter occupied Staunton on June 6 and, after a pause to await the arrival of Brig. Gen. George Crook’s column, began to advance on Lynchburg, destroying military stores and public property in his wake.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Port Republic   

Other Names: None

Location: Rockingham County

Date(s): June 9, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Erastus Tyler [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9,500 total (US 3,500; CS 6,000)

Estimated Casualties: 1,818 total (US 1,002; CS 816)

Description: Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson concentrated his forces east of the South Fork of the Shenandoah against the isolated brigades of Tyler and Carroll of Shields’s division, Brig. Gen. Erastus Tyler commanding. Confederate assaults across the bottomland were repulsed with heavy casualties, but a flanking column turned the Union left flank at the Coaling. Union counterattacks failed to reestablish the line, and Tyler was forced to retreat. Confederate forces at Cross Keys marched to join Jackson at Port Republic burning the North River Bridge behind them. Frémont’s army arrived too late to assist Tyler and Carroll and watched helplessly from across the rain-swollen river. After these dual defeats at Cross Keys and Port Republic, the Union armies retreated, leaving Jackson in control of the upper and middle Shenandoah Valley and freeing his army to reinforce Lee before Richmond.

Result(s): Confederate victory.

Battle of Port Walthall Junction  

Other Names: None

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 6-7, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Brig. Gen. Johnson Hagood [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 550 total

Description: In conjunction with the opening of Grant’s Overland Campaign, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler’s Army of the James, 33,000 strong, disembarked from transports at Bermuda Hundred on May 5, threatening the Richmond-Petersburg Railroad. On May 6, Hagood’s brigade stopped initial Federal probes at Port Walthall Junction. On May 7, a Union division drove Hagood’s and Johnson’s brigades from the depot and cut the railroad at Port Walthall Junction. Confederate defenders retired behind Swift Run Creek and awaited reinforcements.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Proctor’s Creek   

Other Names: Drewry’s Bluff, Fort Darling

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 12-16, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: 48,000 total (US 30,000; CS 18,000)

Estimated Casualties: 6,660 total

Description: After his repulse at Swift Creek and Fort Clifton on May 9, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler withdrew into his entrenchments at Bermuda Hundred. A Confederate army of 18,000 was patched together under command of Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard to confront Butler’s 30,000. On May 12, Butler moved north against the Confederate line at Drewry’s Bluff but again adopted a defensive posture when his attack was not supported by gunboats. On the 13th a Union column struck the right flank of the Confederate line at the Wooldridge House, carrying a line of works. Butler remained cautious, however, giving Beauregard time to concentrate his forces. On May 16 at dawn, Ransom’s Confederate division opened an attack on Butler’s right flank, routing many units. Subsequent attacks lost direction in the fog, but the Federals were disorganized and demoralized. After severe fighting, Butler extricated himself from battle, withdrawing again to his Bermuda Hundred Line. This battle stopped Butler’s offensive against Richmond.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Rappahannock Station #1  

Other Names: Waterloo Bridge, White Sulphur Springs, Lee Springs, Freeman’s Ford

Location: Culpeper County and Fauquier County

Date(s): August 22-25, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Pope [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 225 total

Description: Early August, Lee determined that McClellan’s army was being withdrawn from the Peninsula to reinforce John Pope.  He sent Longstreet from Richmond to join Jackson’s wing of the army near Gordonsville and arrived to take command himself on August 15. August 20-21, Pope withdrew to the line of the Rappahannock River. On August 23, Stuart’s cavalry made a daring raid on Pope’s headquarters at Catlett Station, showing that the Union right flank was vulnerable to a turning movement. Over the next several days, August 22-25, the two armies fought a series of minor actions along the Rappahannock River, including Waterloo Bridge, Lee Springs, Freeman’s Ford, and Sulphur Springs, resulting in a few hundred casualties. Together, these skirmishes primed Pope’s army along the river, while Jackson’s wing marched via Thoroughfare Gap to capture Bristoe Station and destroy Federal supplies at Manassas Junction, far in the rear of Pope’s army.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Rappahannock Station #2  

Other Names: None

Location: Fauquier County and Culpeper County

Date(s): November 7, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,537 total (1,600 Confederate prisoners)

Description: On November 7, the Union army forced passage of the Rappahannock River at two places. A dusk attack overran the Confederate bridgehead at Rappahannock Station, capturing more than 1,600 men of Jubal Early’s Division. Fighting at Kelly’s Ford was less severe with about 430 casualties, but the Confederates retreated allowing the Federals across in force. On the verge of going into winter quarters around Culpeper, Lee’s army retired instead into Orange County south of the Rapidan River. The Army of the Potomac occupied the vicinity of Brandy Station and Culpeper County.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Ream’s Station #1

Other Names: Reams’ Station

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): June 29, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. James Wilson and Brig. Gen. August Kautz [US]; Maj. Gen. William Mahone and Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 600 total  (1,817 for entire raid)

Description: Early morning June 29, Brig. Gen. August Kautz’s division reached Ream’s Station on the Weldon Railroad, which was thought to be held by Union infantry.  Instead, Kautz found the road barred by Mahone’s Confederate infantry division. Wilson’s division, fighting against elements of William H.F.  “Rooney” Lee’s cavalry,  joined Kautz’s near Ream’s Station, where they were virtually surrounded. About noon, Mahone’s infantry assaulted their front while Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry division threatened the Union left flank. The raiders burned their wagons and abandoned their artillery. Separated by the Confederate attacks, Wilson and his men cut their way through and fled south on the Stage Road to cross Nottoway River, while Kautz went cross-country, reaching Federal lines at Petersburg about dark. Wilson continued east to the Blackwater River before turning north, eventually reaching Union lines at Light House Point on July 2. The Wilson-Kautz raid tore up more than 60 miles of track, temporarily disrupting rail traffic into Petersburg, but at a great cost in men and mounts.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Ream’s Station #2   

Other Names: Reams’ Station

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): August 25, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock [US]; Maj. Gen. Henry Heth [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 3,492 total

Description: On August 24, Union II Corps moved south along the Weldon Railroad, tearing up track, preceded by Gregg’s cavalry division. On August 25, Maj. Gen. Henry Heth attacked and overran the faulty Union position at Ream’s Station, capturing 9 guns, 12 colors, and many prisoners. The old II Corps was shattered.  Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock withdrew to the main Union line near the Jerusalem Plank Road, bemoaning the declining combat effectiveness of his troops.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Rice’s Station   

Other Names: Rice’s Depot

Location: Prince Edward County

Date(s): April 6, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Gibbon [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: Few

Description:On April 6, Longstreet’s command reached Rice’s Station, its farthest point south, where it was blocked by Union XXIV Corps. After some skirmishing, Longstreet withdrew over the High Bridge during the night toward Farmville.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Rutherford’s Farm   

Other Names: None

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Date(s): July 20, 1864

Commanders: Commanders: Brig. Gen. William W. Averell [US]; Maj. Gen. S.D. Ramseur [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions(5,850 total)

Estimated Casualties: 1,100 total

Description: On July 20, Brig. Gen. W.W. Averell’s Union division attacked Maj. Gen. S.D. Ramseur’s Confederate division at Rutherford’s and Carter’s farms. This sudden assault came in on the flank of Hoke’s brigade as it was deploying, throwing it into a panic. Ramseur retreated toward Winchester in confusion. Averell captured four pieces of artillery and nearly 300 men. With this defeat, Early withdrew his army south to a defensive position at Fisher’s Hill.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Saint Mary’s Church  

Other Names: Nance’s Shop

Location: Charles City

Date(s): June 24, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 630 total

Description: On June 24, Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton’s cavalry attempted to cut off Sheridan’s cavalry returning from their raid to Trevilian Station. Sheridan fought a delaying action to protect a long supply train under his protection, then rejoined the Union army at Bermuda Hundred.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Salem Church  

Other Names: Banks’ Ford

Location: Spotsylvania County

Date(s): May 3-4, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. John Sedgwick [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 5,000 total

Description: After occupying Marye’s Heights on May 3, Sedgwick’s VI Corps marched out on the Plank Road with the objective of reaching Hooker’s force at Chancellorsville. He was delayed by Wilcox’s brigade of Early’s force at Salem Church.  During the afternoon and night, Lee detached two of his divisions from the Chancellorsville lines and marched them to Salem Church. Several Union assaults were repulsed the next morning with heavy casualties, and the Confederates counterattacked, gaining some ground. After dark, Sedgwick withdrew across two pontoon bridges at Scott’s Dam under a harassing artillery fire.  Hearing that Sedgwick had been repulsed, Hooker abandoned the campaign, recrossing on the night of May 5-6 to the north bank of the Rappahannock.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Saltville #1  

Other Names: None

Location: Smyth County

Date(s): October 2, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Stephen Burbridge [US]; Brig. Gen. Alfred E. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions  (11,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 458 total

Description: Union cavalry and infantry raiders led by Brig. Gen. Stephen Burbridge attempted to destroy the saltworks near Saltville. He was delayed at Clinch Mountain and Laurel Gap by a makeshift Confederate force, enabling Brig. Gen. Alfred E. Jackson to concentrate troops near Saltville to meet him. On the morning of October 1, the Federals attacked but made little headway. Confederate reinforcements continued to arrive during the day.  After day-long fighting, Burbridge retired without accomplishing his objective. Afterwards, Confederate soldiers were said to have murdered, captured, and wounded black soldiers.

Result(s): Confederate victory

 

Battle of Saltville #2   

Other Names: None

Location: Smyth County

Date(s): December 20-21, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George Stoneman [US]; Maj. Gen. John C. Breckinridge [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: After defeating a Confederate force at Marion on the December 17-18, Stoneman’s expedition advanced to Saltville.  After determined skirmishing on the part of the outnumbered Confederate defenders, the Federals captured and destroyed the saltworks, accomplishing the objective of their raid.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Sappony Church   

Other Names: Stony Creek Depot

Location: Sussex County

Date(s): June 28, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Wilson and Brig. Gen. August Kautz [US]; Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,817 for entire raid

Description: Maj. Gen. William H.F. “Rooney” Lee’s cavalry division pursued Wilson’s and Kautz’s raiders who failed to destroy the Staunton River Bridge on June 25. Wilson and Kautz headed east and, on June 28, crossed the Nottoway River at the Double Bridges and headed north to Stony Creek Depot on the Weldon Railroad. Here, they were attacked by Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton’s cavalry division. Later in the day, William H.F. Lee’s Division arrived to join forces with Hampton, and the Federals were heavily pressured. During the night, Wilson and Kautz disengaged and pressed north on the Halifax Road for the supposed security of Reams Station, abandoning many fleeing slaves who had sought security with the Federal raiders.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Savage’s Station   

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): June 29, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Edwin Sumner [US]; Maj. Gen. John Magruder [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 4,700 total (US 2,500 wounded were captured)

Description: Fourth of the Seven Days’ Battles. On June 29, the main body of the Union army began a general withdrawal toward the James River.  Magruder pursued along the railroad and the Williamsburg Road and struck Sumner’s Corps (the Union rearguard) with three brigades near Savage’s Station.  Confederate Brig. Gen. Richard Giffith was mortally wounded during the fight.  Jackson’s divisions were stalled north of the Chickahominy. Union forces continued to withdraw across White Oak Swamp, abandoning supplies and more than 2,500 wounded soldiers in a field hospital.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Sailor’s Creek  

Other Names: Hillsman Farm, Lockett Farm

Location: Amelia County, Prince Edward County, and Nottoway County

Date(s): April 6, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Richard Ewell and Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 9,980 total

Description: On April 6 at Sailor’s Creek, nearly one fourth of the retreating Confederate army was cut off by Sheridan’s Cavalry and elements of the II and VI Corps. Most surrendered, including Confederate generals Richard S. Ewell, Barton, Simms, Kershaw, Custis Lee, Dubose, Hunton, and Corse. This action was considered the death knell of the Confederate army. Upon seeing the survivors streaming along the road, Lee exclaimed “My God, has the army dissolved?”

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Seven Pines   

Other Names: Fair Oaks, Fair Oaks Station

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): May 31-June 1, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Gen. Joseph E. Johnston and Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith [CS]

Forces Engaged: (84,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 13,736 total (US 5,739; CS 7,997)

Description: On May 31, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston attempted to overwhelm two Federal corps that appeared isolated south of the Chickahominy River. The Confederate assaults, though not well coordinated, succeeded in driving back the IV Corps and inflicting heavy casualties. Reinforcements arrived, and both sides fed more and more troops into the action. Supported by the III Corps and Sedgwick’s division of Sumner’s II Corps (that crossed the rain-swollen river on Grapevine Bridge), the Federal position was finally stabilized. Gen. Johnston was seriously wounded during the action, and command of the Confederate army devolved temporarily to Maj. Gen. G.W. Smith. On June 1, the Confederates renewed their assaults against the Federals who had brought up more reinforcements but made little headway. Both sides claimed victory.  Confederate brigadier Robert H. Hatton was killed.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Sewell’s Point   

Other Names: None

Location: Norfolk City

Date(s): May 18-19, 1861

Commanders: Lt. D.L. Braine U.S.N. [US]; Brig. Gen. Walter Gwynn and Capt. Peyton Colquitt [CS]

Forces Engaged: Two gunboats [US]; battery garrison [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 10 total

Description: Two Union gunboats, including USS Monticello, dueled with Confederate batteries on Sewell’s Point in an attempt to enforce the blockade of Hampton Roads. The two sides did each other little harm.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Spotsylvania Court House  

Other Names: Combats at Laurel Hill and Corbin’s Bridge (May 8); Ni River (May 9); Laurel Hill, Po River, and Bloody Angle (May 10); Salient or Bloody Angle (May 12-13); Piney Branch Church (May 15); Harrison House (May 18); Harris Farm (May 19)

Location: Spotsylvania County

Date(s): May 8-21, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 152,000 total (US 100,000; CS 52,000)

Estimated Casualties: 30,000 total (US 18,000; CS 12,000)

Description: After the Wilderness, Grant’s and Meade’s advance on Richmond by the left flank was stalled at Spotsylvania Court House on May 8. This two-week battle was a series of combats along the Spotsylvania front. The Union attack against the Bloody Angle at dawn, May 12-13, captured nearly a division of Lee’s army and came near to cutting the Confederate army in half. Confederate counterattacks plugged the gap, and fighting continued unabated for nearly 20 hours in what may well have been the most ferociously sustained combat of the Civil War. On May 19, a Confederate attempt to turn the Union right flank at Harris Farm was beaten back with severe casualties. Union generals Sedgwick (VI Corps commander) and Rice were killed. Confederate generals Johnson and Steuart were captured, Daniel and Perrin mortally wounded. On May 21, Grant disengaged and continued his advance on Richmond.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Grant continued his offensive.)

Battle of Staunton River Bridge  

Other Names: Blacks and Whites, Old Men and Young Boys

Location: Halifax County and Charlotte

Date(s): June 25, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Wilson and Brig. Gen. August Kautz [US]; Maj. Gen. William H.F. “Rooney”  Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions (4,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 150 total

Description: On June 22, the cavalry divisions of Brig. Gen. James Wilson and Brig. Gen. August Kautz were dispatched from the Petersburg lines to disrupt Confederate rail communications.  Riding via Dinwiddie Court House, the raiders cut the South Side Railroad near Ford’s Station that evening, destroying tracks, railroad buildings, and two supply trains. On June 23, Wilson proceeded to the junction of the Richmond & Danville Railroad at Burke Station, where he encountered elements of William H.F. Lee’s cavalry between Nottoway Court House and Blacks and Whites (modern-day Blackstone). Wilson followed Kautz along the South Side Railroad, destroying about thirty miles of track as he advanced. On June 24, while Kautz remained skirmishing around Burkeville, Wilson crossed over to Meherrin Station on the Richmond & Danville and began destroying track. On June 25, Wilson and Kautz continued tearing up track south to the Staunton River Bridge, where they were delayed by Home Guards, who prevented destruction of the bridge. Lee’s cavalry division closed on the Federals from the northeast, forcing them to abandon their attempts to capture and destroy the bridge. By this time, the raiders were nearly 100 miles from Union lines.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Suffolk – Hill’s Point  

Other Names: Fort Huger, Hill’s Point

Location: Suffolk

Date(s): April 11-May 4, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. John Peck [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions (45,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 152 total (1,160 for entire siege)

Description: On April 19, a Union infantry force landed on Hill’s Point at the confluence of the forks of the Nansemond River. This amphibious force assaulted Fort Huger from the rear, quickly capturing its garrison, thus reopening the river to Union shipping. On April 24, Brig. Gen. Michael Corcoran’s Union division mounted a reconnaissance-in-force from Fort Dix against Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett’s extreme right flank. The Federals approached cautiously and were easily repulsed. On April 29, Gen. Robert E. Lee directed Longstreet to disengage from Suffolk and rejoin the Army of Northern Virginia at Fredericksburg. By May 4, the last of Longstreet’s command had crossed the Blackwater River en route to Richmond.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Suffolk – Norfleet House

Other Names: Norfleet House Battery

Location: Suffolk

Date(s): April 13-15, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. John Peck [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions  (45,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: (1,160 entire siege)

Description: In cooperation with D.H. Hill’s advance on Washington, North Carolina, Lt. Gen. James Longstreet with Hood’s and Pickett’s divisions besieged the Union garrison at Suffolk commanded by Brig. Gen. John Peck. The Union works were formidable and manned by 25,000 men, opposed to Longstreet’s 20,000. On April 13, the Confederate troops pushed their left flank to the Nansemond River and constructed a battery on Hill’s Point, which closed off the garrison to Union shipping.  On April 14, Union gunboats attempted to run the batteries at the Norfleet House slightly upstream, but Mount Washington was crippled. The Federals, at the same time, constructed batteries to command the Confederate works at Norfleet House. On April 15, these batteries were unmasked and opened fire, driving the Confederates out of this important position.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Sutherland’s Station  

Other Names: None

Location: Dinwiddie

Date(s): April 2, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles [US]; Maj. Gen. Henry Heth and Maj. Gen. Cadmus Wilcox [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 970 total (US 370; CS 600)

Description: Union columns converged on Petersburg on April 2. part Mile’s force struck north from White Oak Road meeting elements of four Confederate brigades (Cooke, Scales, MacRae, McGowan) attempting to defend the South Side Railroad. The Confedeerates placed their left flank on Ocran Methodist Church, where it was overun by three Union brigades commanded by Miles. The Confederate defenders were scattered and driven northwestward. With this victory, the Federals possessed the South Side Railroad, Gen. Robert E. Lee’s last supply line into Petersburg.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Swift Creek  

Other Names: Arrowfield Church

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 9, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 990 total

Description: On May 9, Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler made a thrust toward Petersburg and was met by Bushrod Johnson’s Division at Swift Creek. A premature Confederate attack at Arrowfield Church was driven back with heavy losses, but Union forces did not follow up. After skirmishing, Butler seemed content to tear up the railroad tracks and did not press the defenders. In conjunction with the advance to Swift Creek, five Federal gunboats steamed up the Appomattox River to bombard Fort Clifton, while Hincks’s U.S. Colored Troops infantry division struggled through marshy ground from the land side. The gunboats were quickly driven off, and the infantry attack was abandoned.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Thoroughfare Gap  

Other Names: Chapman’s Mill

Location: Fauquier County and Prince William County

Date(s): August 28, 1862

Commanders: Brig. Gen. James Ricketts [US]; Lt. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 100 total

Description: After skirmishing near Chapman’s Mill in Thoroughfare Gap, Brig. Gen. James Ricketts’s Union division was flanked by a Confederate column passing through Hopewell Gap several miles to the north and by troops securing the high ground at Thoroughfare Gap.  Ricketts retired, and Longstreet’s wing of the army marched through the gap to join Jackson. This seemingly inconsequential action virtually ensured Pope’s defeat during the battles of Aug. 29-30 because it allowed the two wings of Lee’s army to unite on the Manassas battlefield. Ricketts withdrew via Gainesville to Manassas Junction.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Tom’s Brook   

Other Names: Woodstock Races

Location: Shenandoah County

Date(s): October 9, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Alfred Torbert [US]; Maj. Gen. Thomas Rosser [CS]

Forces Engaged: 9,800 total (US 6,300; CS 3,500)

Estimated Casualties: 407 total (US 57; CS 350)

Description: After his victory at Fisher’s Hill, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan pursued Early’s army up the Shenandoah Valley to near Staunton. On October 6, Sheridan began withdrawing, as his cavalry burned everything that could be deemed of military significance,  including barns and mills. Reinforced by Kershaw’s division, Early followed. Maj. Gen. Thomas Rosser arrived from Petersburg to take command of Fitz Lee’s cavalry division and harassed the retreating Federals. On October 9, Torbert’s troopers turned on their pursuers, routing the divisions of Rosser and Lomax at Tom’s Brook. With this victory, the Union cavalry attained overwhelming superiority in the Valley.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Totopotomoy Creek  

Other Names: Bethesda Church, Crumps Creek, Matadequin Creek, Shady Grove Road, Hanovertown

Location: Hanover County

Date(s): May 28-30, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,200 total (US 1,100; CS 1,100)

Description: Operations along Totopotomoy Creek opened with cavalry combats at the Pamunkey River crossing at Dabney’s Ferry (Hanovertown) and at Crump’s Creek on May 27. During the cavalry fight at Haw’s Shop on May 28, Union and Confederate infantry arrived in the vicinity. The Confederates entrenched behind Totopotomoy Creek. On the 29th, the Union II, IX, and V Corps probed Lee’s position along the creek, while the VI Corps felt its way toward Hanover Court House. Early on the 30th, the VI Corps turned south to come in on the far right flank of the Union line (II Corps) but bogged down in swampy Crump’s Creek without getting into position. The II Corps forced a crossing of Totopotomoy Creek in two places, capturing the first line of Confederate trenches, but the advance was stopped at the main line. The IX Corps maneuvered into position on the left of the II Corps, driving back Confederate pickets on the Shady Grove Road.  In the meantime, the V Corps, moving near Bethesda Church on the far left flank of the Union army, was attacked by Early’s corps.  The Federals were driven back to Shady Grove Road after heavy fighting. Confederate Brig. Gen. George Doles was killed by a sharpshooter near Bethesda Church on June 2.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Trevilian Station   

Other Names: Trevilians

Location: Louisa County

Date(s): June 11-12, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton  [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 1,600 total

Description: To draw off the Confederate cavalry and open the door for a general movement to the James River, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan mounted a large-scale cavalry raid into Louisa County, threatening to cut the Virginia Central Railroad. On June 11, Sheridan with the Gregg’s and Torbert’s divisions attacked Hampton’s and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry divisions at Trevilian Station. Sheridan drove a wedge between the Confederate divisions, throwing them into confusion. On the 12th, fortunes were reversed. Hampton and Lee dismounted their troopers and drew a defensive line across the railroad and the road to Gordonsville. From this advantageous position, they beat back several determined dismounted assaults. Sheridan withdrew after destroying about six miles of the Virginia Central Railroad. Confederate victory at Trevilian prevented Sheridan from reaching Charlottesville and cooperating with Hunter’s army in the Valley. This was one of the bloodiest cavalry battles of the war.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Upperville  

Other Names: None

Location: Loudoun County

Date(s): June 21, 1863

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton [US]; Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton and Brig. Gen. Beverly Robertson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 400 total

Description: On June 21, Union cavalry made a determined effort to pierce Stuart’s cavalry screen. Hampton’s and Robertson’s brigades made a stand at Goose Creek, west of Middleburg, and beat back Gregg’s division. Buford’s column detoured to attack the Confederate left flank near Upperville but encountered William E. “Grumble”  Jones’s and John R. Chambliss’s brigades while J.I. Gregg’s and Kilpatrick’s brigades advanced on the Upperville from the east along the Little River Turnpike. After furious mounted fighting, Stuart withdrew to take a strong defensive position in Ashby Gap, even as Confederate infantry crossed the Potomac into Maryland. As cavalry skirmishing diminished, Stuart made the fateful decision to strike east and make a circuit of the Union army as it marched toward Gettysburg.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Walkerton   

Other Names: Mantapike Hill

Location: King and Queen County

Date(s): March 2, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick and Col. Ulric Dahlgren [CS]; Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: Unknown

Description: On February 28, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick left his encampment at Stevensburg with 4,000 picked men to raid Richmond. Col. Ulric Dahlgren, son of Rear Adm. John Dahlgren, commanded an advance force of 500 men. While the main body under Kilpatrick rode along the Virginia Central Railroad tearing up track, Dahlgren rode south to the James River, hoping to cross over, penetrate Richmond’s defenses from the rear, and release Union prisoners at Belle Isle. Kilpatrick reached the outskirts of Richmond on March 1 and skirmished before the city’s defenses, waiting for Dahlgren to rejoin the main column. Dahlgren, however, was delayed, and Kilpatrick was forced to withdraw with Confederate cavalry in pursuit. Hampton attacked Kilpatrick near Old Church on the 2nd, but the Federals found refuge with elements of Butler’s command at New Kent Court House. In the meantime, Dahlgren’s men, unable to penetrate Richmond’s defenses, tried to escape pursuit by riding north of the city. Dahlgren’s command became separated, and on March 2 his detachment of about 100 men was ambushed by a detachment of the 9th Virginia Cavalry and Home Guards in King and Queen County near Walkerton. Dahlgren was killed and most of his men captured. Papers found on Dahlgren’s body that ordered him to burn Richmond and assassinate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet caused a political furor. Southerners accused the North of initiating “a war of extermination.” Meade, Kilpatrick, and Lincoln all disavowed any knowledge of the Dahlgren Papers.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Ware Bottom Church  

Other Names: None

Location: Chesterfield County

Date(s): May 20, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler [US]; Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions (10,000 total)

Estimated Casualties: 1,500 total

Description: On May 20, Confederate forces under Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard attacked Butler’s Bermuda Hundred line near Ware Bottom Church. About 10,000 troops were involved in this action.  After driving back Butler’s advanced pickets, the Confederates constructed the Howlett Line, effectively bottling up the Federals at Bermuda Hundred. Confederate victories at Proctor’s Creek and Ware Bottom Church enabled Beauregard to detach strong reinforcements for Lee’s army in time for the fighting at Cold Harbor.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Waynesboro   

Other Names: None

Location: Augusta County

Date(s): March 2, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Lt. Gen. Jubal Early [CS]

Forces Engaged: 4,100 total (US 2,500; CS 1,600)

Estimated Casualties: 1,800 total

Description: On February 27, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan with two cavalry divisions rode from Winchester up the Shenandoah Valley to Staunton. Turning east, the Federals encountered the last remnant of Lt. Gen. Jubal Early’s Valley army at Waynesboro on March 2. After a brief stand-off, a Federal attack rolled up Early’s right flank and scattered his small force. More than 1,500 Confederates surrendered. Early and a few of his staff evaded capture. Sheridan crossed the Blue Ridge to Charlottesville and then raided south, destroying the James River Canal locks near Goochland Court House. He joined forces with the Army of the Potomac near Petersburg on March 26 for the opening of the Appomattox Campaign.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of White Oak Road   

Other Names: Hatcher’s Run, Gravelly Run, Boydton Plank Road, White Oak Ridge

Location: Dinwiddie County

Date(s): March 31, 1865

Commanders: Maj. Gen. G.K. Warren [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee and Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson [CS]

Forces Engaged: Corps

Estimated Casualties: 2,670 (US 1,870; CS 800)

Description:On March 30, Lee shifted reinforcements to meet the Federal movement to turn his right flank, placing Maj. Gen. W.H. Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry divisions at Five Forks and transferring Pickett’s division from the Bermuda Hundred front to the extreme right. Warren pushed the V Corps forward and entrenched a line to cover the Boydton Plank Road from its intersection with Dabney Mill Road south to Gravelly Run. Ayres’s division advanced northwest toward White Oak Road. On March 31, in combination with Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s thrust via Dinwiddie Court House, Warren directed his corps against the Confederate entrenchments along White Oak Road, hoping to cut Lee’s communications with Pickett at Five Forks. The Union advance was stalled by a crushing counterattack directed by Maj. Gen. Bushrod Johnson, but Warren’s position stabilized and his soldiers closed on the road by day’s end. This fighting set up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1.

Result(s): Union gained ground

Battle of Wilderness   

Other Names: Combats at Parker’s Store, Craig’s Meeting House, Todd’s Tavern, Brock Road, the Furnaces

Location: Spotsylvania and Orange Counties

Date(s): May 5-7, 1864

Commanders: Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade [US]; Gen. Robert E. Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: 162,920 total (US 101,895; CS 61,025)

Estimated Casualties: 29,800 total (US 18,400; CS 11,400)

Description: The opening battle of Grant’s sustained offensive against the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, known as the Overland Campaign, was fought at the Wilderness, May 5-7. On the morning of May 5, 1864, the Union V Corps attacked Ewell’s Corps on the Orange Turnpike, while A.P. Hill’s corps during the afternoon encountered Getty’s Division (VI Corps) and Hancock’s II Corps on the Plank Road. Fighting was fierce but inconclusive as both sides attempted to maneuver in the dense woods. Darkness halted the fighting, and both sides rushed forward reinforcements.  At dawn on May 6, Hancock attacked along the Plank Road, driving Hill’s Corps back in confusion. Longstreet’s Corps arrived in time to prevent the collapse of the Confederate right flank. At noon, a devastating Confederate flank attack in Hamilton’s Thicket sputtered out when Lt. Gen. James Longstreet was wounded by his own men. The IX Corps (Burnside) moved against the Confederate center, but was repulsed. Union generals James S. Wadsworth and Alexander Hays were killed. Confederate generals John M. Jones, Micah Jenkins, and Leroy A. Stafford were killed. The battle was a tactical draw. Grant, however, did not retreat as had the other Union generals before him. On May 7, the Federals advanced by the left flank toward the crossroads of Spotsylvania Courthouse.

Result(s): Inconclusive (Grant continued his offensive.)

Battle of Williamsburg  

Other Names: Fort Magruder

Location: York County and Williamsburg

Date(s): May 5, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. James Longstreet [CS]

Forces Engaged: 72,591 total (US 40,768;CS 31,823)

Estimated Casualties: 3,843 total (US 2,283; CS 1,560)

Description: In the first pitched battle of the Peninsula Campaign, nearly 41,000 Federals and 32,000 Confederates were engaged.  Following up the Confederate retreat from Yorktown, Hooker’s division encountered the Confederate rearguard near Williamsburg. Hooker assaulted Fort Magruder, an earthen fortification alongside the Williamsburg Road, but was repulsed. Confederate counterattacks, directed by Maj. Gen. James Longstreet, threatened to overwhelm the Union left flank, until Kearny’s division arrived to stabilize the Federal position. Hancock’s brigade then moved to threaten the Confederate left flank, occupying two abandoned redoubts.  The Confederates counterattacked unsuccessfully. Hancock’s localized success was not exploited. The Confederate army continued its withdrawal during the night.

Result(s): Inconclusive

Battle of Wilson’s Wharf  

Other Names: Fort Pocahontas

Location: Charles City

Date(s): May 24, 1864

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Edward Wild [US]; Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee [CS]

Forces Engaged: Brigades

Estimated Casualties: 165 total

Description: On May 24, Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry division (about 3,000 men) attacked the Union supply depot at Wilson’s Wharf and was repulsed by two black regiments under Brig. Gen. Edward Wild (about 1,800 men).

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Winchester #1

Other Names: Bowers Hill

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Date(s): May 25, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks [US]; Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson [CS]

Forces Engaged: 22,500 total (US 6,500; CS 16,000)

Estimated Casualties: 2,419 total (US 2,019; CS 400)

Description: After skirmishing with Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks’s retreating army at Middletown and Newtown on May 24, Maj. Gen. T.J. Jackson’s division continued north on the Valley Pike toward Winchester. There, Banks was attempting to reorganize his army to defend the town. Ewell’s division converged on Winchester from the southeast using the Front Royal Pike. On May 25, Ewell attacked Camp Hill, while the Louisiana Brigade of Jackson’s division outflanked and overran the Union position on Bowers Hill. Panic spread through the Federal ranks, and many fled through Winchester. Banks’s army was soundly defeated and withdrew north across the Potomac River. This was a decisive battle in Jackson’s Valley Campaign.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Winchester #2

Other Names: None

Location: Frederick County and Winchester

Date(s): June 13-15, 1863

Commanders: Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy [US]; Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell [CS]

Forces Engaged: 19,500 total (US 7,000; CS 12,500)

Estimated Casualties: 4,709 total (US 4,443; CS 266)

Description: After the Battle of Brandy Station, June 9, 1863, Lee ordered the II Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, under Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, to clear the lower Shenandoah Valley of Union opposition. Ewell’s columns converged on Winchester’s garrison commanded by Brig. Gen. Robert Milroy. After fighting on the afternoon of June 13 and the capture of West Fort by the Louisiana Brigade on June 14, Milroy abandoned his entrenchments after dark in an attempt to reach Charles Town. “Allegheny” Johnson’s division conducted a night flanking march and before daylight of the 15th cut off Milroy’s retreat just north of Winchester at Stephenson’s Depot. More than 2,400 Federals surrendered. This Confederate victory cleared the Valley of Union troops and opened the door for Lee’s second invasion of the North.

Result(s): Confederate victory

Battle of Yellow Tavern  

Other Names: None

Location: Henrico County

Date(s): May 11, 1864

Commanders: Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan [US]; Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart [CS]

Forces Engaged: Divisions

Estimated Casualties: 800 total

Description: As the battle between Grant and Lee raged at Spotsylvania Court House, the Union cavalry corps under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan embarked on a cavalry raid against Richmond. After disrupting Lee’s road and rail communications, Sheridan’s cavalry expedition climaxed with the battle of Yellow Tavern on May 11. The outnumbered Confederate cavalry was defeated, and Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart was mortally wounded.  Sheridan continued south to threaten the Richmond defenses before joining Butler’s command at Bermuda Hundred. After refitting, Sheridan rejoined the Army of the Potomac on May 25 for the march to the southeast and the crossing of the Pamunkey.

Result(s): Union victory

Battle of Yorktown   

Other Names: None

Location: York County and Newport News

Date(s): April 5-May 4, 1862

Commanders: Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan [US]; Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder and Gen. Joseph E. Johnston [CS]

Forces Engaged: Armies

Estimated Casualties: 320 total

Description: Marching from Fort Monroe, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan’s army encountered Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder’s small Confederate army at Yorktown behind the Warwick River.  Magruder’s theatrics convinced the Federals that his works were strongly held. McClellan suspended the march up the Peninsula toward Richmond, ordered the construction of siege fortifications, and brought his heavy siege guns to the front. In the meantime, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston brought reinforcements for Magruder.  On 16 April, Union forces probed a weakness in the Confederate line at Lee’s Mill or Dam No. 1, resulting in about 309 casualties.  Failure to exploit the initial success of this attack, however, held up McClellan for two additional weeks, while he tried to convince his navy to maneuver the Confederates’ big guns at Yorktown and Gloucester Point and ascend the York River to West Point thus outflanking the Warwick Line. McClellan planned for a massive bombardment to begin at dawn on May 4, but the Confederate army slipped away in the night toward Williamsburg.

Result(s): Inconclusive